Identification of Textile Fibers
There are different types of tests which identifies the textile fibers.
Melting point test
It comes under the technical test which involves the identification of fiber with the help of projection microscope with a magnification of 100 powers.
Natural fibers are more easily identified by this test as synthetic fibers are very similar in appearance and their number of varieties makes it tougher to identify.
It comes under the non-technical test which involves the identification of fiber by treating the fibers in certain solvents.
This test gives the accurate analysis in the identification of fiber.
This test is difficult to identify the manufactured fibers and their blends as they are chemically similar.
There is no chemical test which is for separating or identifying the fibers in combinations.
Fiber can also be identified by using their melting points.
It comes under the technical test which involves the identification of fiber by touching the fabric.
It requires long experience of handling for skilled perception.
But this test is difficult to identify and compare the fabrics made of different fiber contents.
*The cellulosic fibers like cotton, linen, viscose rayon feels cool to touch.
As they are conductors of heat and the heat generated by the fingers passes of making the fabric cold to touch.
**Wool is warmth to touch as it a non-conductor of heat which generates heat, will remain in the touched area itself.
It comes under the non technical test which involves the identification of fiber by burning the fabric and observing the various characteristics shown by it after burning.
It is efficient test than the burning test.
But this test is difficult to identify and compare the fabrics made of different fiber contents or bi-constituent fibers.
Process of burning:
To identify the fibers in an unknown piece of fabric, a small piece which is off 1 inch long and a triangle at most ¼ inch wide should be taken.
The piece of fabric should be held in pair of tweezers over dish and it has to be put directly into the flame long enough for it to catch on the fire.