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Textile Elements | Textile Definitions

Updated: Aug 21, 2023

Textile technology:

It is a branch which deals with the production/ properties of elements like fibre, yarn and fabric. It also deals with the application from household to aero scope.


Any cloth/fabric or goods, or materials which are produced by knitting, weaving, felting, braiding and nonwoven is called as textile.


It is a unit of matter with specific length, width and thickness and which can be spun, drafted and twisted.


It is nothing but the continuous length of interlocked fibers which is used in the production of textiles, weaving, knitting, sewing and embroidery.


The group of yarns are processed into knitting, weaving which converts yarn into fabric.


It is an article or piece of clothing i.e. shirt, dress, suiting's, coat, trousers, sweater etc.


All children’s wear, women’s wear and men’s wear are called apparel.


The process of separating fibers from seeds is known as ginning.


It is a process in which two to three varieties of same kind of fibers are mixed in specific proportion to get the optimum mix which improves the final properties.


Mixing of two to three different kinds of fibers which produce quality yarn is called blending.


The spiral arrangement of the fibers around the axis of the yarn and it binds the fibers together which gives yarn strength.


Count is a number which represents the linear density and it also represents the fineness, coarseness or size of the yarn.


The process of converting fibers such as cotton, polyester, nylon etc. into continuous yarn is called spinning.


The interlacement of warp yarns(ends) and weft yarns(picks) into fabric is called as weaving.


The fabric which is formed by interloping of courses and wale yarns is called as knitting.


The fabric which is formed by bonding of fibers by chemical, mechanical or thermal means.


It is the method of interlacing three or more yarns to make a rope like thing.

Courser yarn:

It means thicker yarn.


It is a mechanical process in which fibers opens, cleans, intermixes, disentangles and lays them parallel to produce a single condensed continuous untwisted strand called sliver which is suitable for upcoming processes. This can be achieved by passing the fibers between differentially moving surfaces.


The mechanical process of eliminating short fibers, neps and impurities by parallelizing and straightening the fibers.

Wet processing/chemical processing:

It is nothing but the finishing treatment applied on textiles to improve their performance. It includes desizing, scouring, bleaching, dyeing and printing.


It is a process of impregnating protective adhesive/coating on warp yarn surface to withstand stresses and strains during weaving.


The removal of size/coating on warp yarn surface after weaving is called desizing.


The removal or burning off projecting fibers on fabric and yarn over a gas flame is called singeing.


This process removes all the oils, pectin's and waxes to get the water absorbent textile material.


This process removes the natural colors from the fabric and makes the fabric whiter by the action of chemical treatment.


This process is used for cellulosic materials in which lustrous appearance and strengthening of fabric takes place.


The process of adding or applying color to the ready for dyeing fabric is known as dyeing.


The process of adding color/dye or pigments to the selected areas of textile material to make the fabric decorative/attractive.


The process of attaching different parts of the cut pieces like collar, sleeves, yoke etc. to make

a garment with the help of needle and thread is called as sewing.


Spreading is a process where the fabric spreads on the table according to marker measurement is called as spreading.


Pressing is the process of ironing in which wrinkles or creases can be created or removed on fabric by applying heat.


Testing is done to determine the quality, properties, end uses of different kinds of textile materials.


The systematic visual observation of fabrics to find out the defects which can be seen by an eye is called as inspection.


After the textile fibers made, they gone through different chemical and mechanical processes to improve or change the aesthetic or physical properties.

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