Textile Elements

Updated: Jan 8, 2021

Textile technology:

It is a branch which deals with the production/ properties elements like fiber, yarn and fabric. It also deals with the application from household to aero scope.

Textile:

Any cloth/fabric or goods, materials which are produced by knitting, weaving, felting, braiding and nonwoven is called as textile.

Fiber:

It is a unit of matter with specific length, width and thickness and which can be spun, drafted and twisted.

Yarn:

It is nothing but the continuous length of interlocked fibers which is used in the production of textiles, weaving, knitting, sewing and embroidery.

Fabric:

The group of yarns are processed into knitting, weaving which converts yarn into fabric.

Garment:

It is an article or piece of clothing i.e. shirt, dress, suiting's, coat, trouser, sweater etc.

Apparel:

All children’s wear, women’s wear and men’s wear is called as an apparel.



Ginning:

The process of separating fibers from seeds is known as ginning.

Mixing:

It is a process in which two to three varieties of same kind of fibers are mixed in specific proportion to get the optimum mix which improves the final properties.

Blending:

Mixing of two to three different kinds of fibers which produce quality yarn is called blending.

Twist:

The spiral arrangement of the fibers around the axis of the yarn and it binds the fibers together which gives yarn strength.

Count:

Count is a number which represents the linear density and it also represents the fineness, coarseness or size of the yarn.

Spinning:

The process of converting fibers such as cotton, polyester, nylon etc. into continuous yarn is called spinning.

Weaving:

The interlacement of warp yarns(ends) and weft yarns(picks) into fabric is called as weaving.

Knitting:

The fabric which is formed by interloping of courses and wale yarns is called as knitting.

Nonwoven:

The fabric which is formed by bonding of fibers by chemical, mechanical or thermal means.

Braiding:

It is the method of interlacing three or more yarns to make a rope like thing.

Courser yarn:

It means thicker yarn.



Carding:

It is a mechanical process in which fibers opens, cleans, intermixes, disentangles and lays them paralle to produce a single condensed continuous untwisted strand called sliver which is suitable for upcoming processes. This can be achieved by passing the fibers between differentially moving surfaces.

Combing/Gilling:

The mechanical process of eliminating short fibers, neps and impurities by parallelizing and straightening the fibers.

Wet processing/chemical processing:

It is nothing but the finishing treatment applied on textiles to improve their performance. It includes desizing, scouring, bleaching, dyeing and printing.

Sizing:

It is a process of impregnating protective adhesive/coating on warp yarn surface to withstand stresses and strains during weaving.

Desizing:

The removal of size/coating on warp yarn surface after weaving is called desizing.

Singeing:

The removal or burning off projecting fibers on fabric and yarn over a gas flame is called singeing.

Scouring:

This process removes all the oils, pectin's and waxes to get the water absorbent textile material.

Bleaching:

This process removes the natural colors from the fabric and makes the fabric whiter by the action of chemical treatment.

Mercerization:

This process is used for cellulosic materials in which lustrous appearance and strengthening of fabric takes place.

Dyeing:

The process of adding or applying color to the ready for dyeing fabric is known as dyeing.

Printing:

The process of adding color/dye or pigments to the selected areas of textile material to make the fabric decorative/attractive.

Sewing:

The process of attaching different parts of the cut pieces like collar, sleeves, yoke etc. to make

a garment with the help of needle and thread is called as sewing.

Spreading:

Spreading is a process where the fabric spreads on the table according to marker measurement is called as spreading.

Pressing:

Pressing is the process of ironing in which wrinkles or creases can be created or removed on fabric by applying heat.

Testing:

Testing is done to determine the quality, properties, end uses of different kinds of textile materials.

Inspection:

The systematic visual observation of fabrics to find out the defects which can be seen by an eye is called as inspection.

Finishing:

After the textile fibers made, they gone through different chemical and mechanical processes to improve or change the aesthetic or physical properties.



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