A selvedge is the finished edge portion of a woven fabric that is parallel to the warp yarns of the woven structure. Selvedges (self-edges) and are often made with heavier and more closely spaced warp yarns than are used in the rest of the fabric by using more or stronger warp yarns or by using a stronger weave. Selvedges (also called selvages) provide strength to fabric for the safe handling of the fabric. Selvedge should not curl.
Plain selvedges are constructed of the simple plain weave, this simple plain selvedge is made of the same yarns as the rest of the fabric is made, but the threads are packed more closely.
This type of selvedge is constructed with the plain weave, basket, or twill weave. This type of selvedge makes a flatter edge and is made of heavier yarns or ply yarns, which provides greater strength.
These are made by weaving a narrow width fabric twice its ordinary width with two selvedges in the center. The fabric is then cut between the selvedges, and the cut edges are finished with a chain stitch or hemming. Split selvedges are used when items such as towels are woven side by side and cut apart after weaving.
These selvedges are made on fabrics of thermoplastic fibers, such as polypropylene, nylon, etc., by pressing a hot mechanical element on the edges of the fabric. The fibers melt and fuse, sealing the edges.
The leno selvedges are obtained by binding the wefts with strong additional threads working in leno or gauze weave and by eliminating through cutting the protruding weft ends. Half cross-leno weave fabrics have excellent shear resistance. They are made with special leno weaving harnesses. The leno selvedge is used on some shuttle-less looms.
The tucked selvedge is a technique used on some shuttle-less looms. A device is used to tuck and hold the cut ends into the fabric edge. In tucked-in selvedge, the fringed edges of the weft yarns are woven back into the body of the fabric using a special tuck-in mechanism. As a result, the weft density is doubled in the selvedge area. The tucked-in selvedge was being only used for projectile weaving machines in the past; however, it is now also applied to other shuttle-less weaving machines.
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