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Types of Factory Buildings

Types of Factory Buildings:

  1. Single storey building.

  2. High bay and monitor type building.

  3. Multi-storey building.

  4. Buildings of special types.

Single storey buildings:

In this type of building only one store or floor is available where all the machines/ instruments are placed. In this type of buildings there are various types of roofing. This type of building is considered when land available at cheaper rates. This type of buildings will have easy material flow. Single storey building is mainly suitable for spinning, weaving, and wet-processing units.

Advantages of single store building:

  • This type of buildings will be easy to expand.

  • Flexible layout.

  • Natural light and good ventilation can be supplied through the roof.

  • Less time to construct.

  • Low material handling cost.

  • Easy supervision and control.

  • Low mechanical vibrations.

  • Heavy machines can be installed.

  • It is easy to isolate hazardous areas.

  • No space loss due to elevators and stairs.

  • Building cost will be less when compared with multi-store building at same gross area.

  • Permits high ceiling.

  • Needs fewer columns.

  • The risk of serious fire damage is less.

  • Involves less operating cost.

  • Building and equipment maintenance is less and easy.

Disadvantages of single store building:

  • Single store building does not make most effective use of land.

  • Requires more land.

  • Layout is more compact.

  • Gravity cannot be employed in case of material handling equipment.

  • Valuable production space is occupied by officers and stores.


Single store building is used were.

  • Land price is relatively cheaper.

  • Heavy machinery is required for processing.

  • Growth of factory is expected.

Types of roof structures of factory building:

  1. Flat roof.

  2. Saw tooth roof.

  3. Bow string roof.

  4. Gable roof.

  5. High bay mill roof.

  6. Flat with monitor roof.

High bay and Monitor type:

This is a single-storey structure with this difference, that the roof truss is surrounded by a monitor. The building is designed to give maximum overhead space for a given floor area. The overhead space may be used to operate a crane and other overhead facilities. The monitor offers good natural ventilation, and the side walls, built with glass, act as windows for natural lighting. Buildings for steel mills and foundries are often of the monitor or bar type; they enable the management to take advantage of natural ventilation and illumination coming from high roofs and center openings, which provide ample room for crane operations.

Multi-Storey Buildings:


  1. They possess distinct material handling advantages where goods can be moved by gravity.

  2. They provide for maximum operating floor space per square meter of land.

  3. They involve a lower site cost for a given production area.

  4. They need less land and make more efficient use of land.

  5. They make a more compact layout.

  6. They involve lower heating costs.

  7. Top stories may be utilized for light stores and offices thereby increasing the size of production floor on the ground level.


  1. Material handling is expensive for bulky materials.

  2. More time is taken by persons and materials in transit from one floor to another.

  3. Stairways, elevators, etc. reduce the effective area and thus increase the cost per square meter of usable space.

  4. The more the number of stories, the higher is the cost of foundations and the more is the space occupied by supporting columns.

  5. Natural illumination in the center of a multi-storey building is poor.

  6. Changes in width and length of upper floors (for expansion purposes) is not possible.


Multistore factory buildings are used:

  • Where cost of land is relatively high.

  • In process industries such as refineries, chemicals, fertilizers, floor mills etc.

Buildings of Special Types:

Special type buildings may be a combination of the three types discussed above. A special type building may be designed to accommodate a particular process. Such buildings are inflexible. They become obsolete, once the process changes.

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