Textile Wet-Processing Terms

Updated: Jul 18, 2021


Wet Processing:

It is a processing stage where textile substrate is treated with colorants or chemicals.

Singeing:

Singeing is the process is removing the hairs of fabrics or fibers.

Gas Singeing:

The process of singeing fabric over burning flame.

Roller Singeing:

The process of singeing fabric over heated rotary copper cylinders.



Hot Plate Singeing:

The process of singeing fabric over hot plate.

Desizing:

Desizing is the process or removing the starch or size the covering the warp yarn using enzyme. Oxidizing agent, or other chemicals.

Scouring:

In this process, the fabric is treated with alkali (NaOH, Na2CO3, etc.) to remove fats, wax and oils so that the absorbency increases.

Bleaching:

Bleaching is a process of removing the natural color of fiber to make the white and lustrous.


Mercerizing process:

Mercerizing is the process to improve the luster, hand and other properties of cotton by using strong caustic alkaline solution.

Dyeing process:

Dyeing is the process of give color to fibers, yarn, or fabrics by using natural or synthetic dye.

Dye:

Dye is a coloring compound which adds color to the textile substrate.

Natural dye:

The dyes which are obtained from natural sources is known as natural dyes.


Synthetic dye:

Dyes derived from organic or inorganic compound are known as synthetic dyes.

Bale Dyeing:

The process of dyeing the textile substrate at fiber stage is known as bale dyeing.

Yarn Dyeing:

The process of dyeing the textile substrate at yarn stage is known as yarn dyeing.

Beam Dyeing:

In this method the warp is dyed prior to weaving. It is wound onto a perforated beam and the dye is forced through the perforations thereby saturating the yarn with color.

Burl or speck Dyeing:

This is done mostly on woolens or worsteds, colored specks and blemishes are covered by the use of special colored links which come in many colors and shades. It is a hand operation.


Chain Dyeing:

This is used when yarns and cloth are low in tensile strength. Several cuts or pieces of cloth are tacked end-to-end and run through in a continuous chain in the dye color. This method affords high production.

Jig Dyeing:

This is done in a jig, kier, vat, beck or vessel in an open formation of the goods. The fabric goes from one roller to another through a deep dye bath until the desired shade is achieved.

Piece Dyeing:

The dyeing of fabrics in the cut, bolt or piece form is called piece dyeing. It follows the weaving of the goods and provides a single color for the material, such as blue serge, a green organdy.


Raw Stock Dyeing:

Dyeing of fiber stock precedes spinning of the yarn. Dyeing follows the degreasing of wool fibers and drying of the stock.

Solution Dyeing:

This is also called dope dyeing or spun dyeing; the pigment color is bonded-in in the solution and is picked up as the filaments are being formed in the liquor. Cellulosic and non-cellulosic fibers are dyed to perfection by this method. The colors are bright, clear, clean and fast.

Stitching:

To produce a continuous strand of fabric by joining the grey fabrics so it gets easier to do the wet processing.

Sewing:

This a process of joining different parts of fabric by needle and sewing threads.

Brushing:

The process of removing protruding fibers.


Washing:

To remove the excess chemical substances the fabric is washed.

Drying:

To dry the fabric in certain temperature.

Mercerizing:

The fabric is treated with 20-22% NaOH for 2-3 minutes at room temperature. During mercerization yarn becomes swollen which makes the fiber cylindrical in cross-section. So, which gives a smooth reflection of light and makes the surface more lustrous.

Fixing:

In this step, the dyestuffs are fixed into the textile materials.


Finishing:

As per customer requirements the textile materials are further processed to maintain a certain quality.

Inspection:

The final product is inspected to find any faults and if none found they are compared with the requirements by the buyers. The material goes through several testing and measuring.

Packing:

Finally, the output is packed using polyethylene bags.

Wet Pick-up:

The amount of dye picked-up / absorbed by the fabric during application process.

Take-up / Add-on:

The amount of dye / chemical added on to the surface of fabric during application process.



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