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Wool Fiber Length

Wool Fiber Length

#Wool #Textile #TextileCoach #Gate #Tf_Gate #FiberLength WOOL FIBRE LENGTH (Capacitance Method) WIRA fibre diagram machine: (length for combed wool fibre) Parallel fibres have one end sealed between strips of plastic. Measurement is carried out by pulling the fibres “draw” through measuring slots. M/c measures the capacitance as the ‘draw’ passes through slots. (capacitance is proportional to the amount of material) Measured Length is calculated from the ten-length reading taken at 10% interval between 5% and 95% (= S Li / 10). Wool fibre length measurement by Almeter: (capacitance method) An automatic version of the WIRA fibre diagram machine, with modification. The sample is prepared by fully automatic m/c known as “fibroliner”. During measurement, the sample is moved (trapped between two plastic films) at a constant speed with the longest fibre entering the capacitor first. Change incapacity is caused by the amount of fibre. Can you help us improve this page? Send us your contribution on info@textilecoach.net, we will update this page and give you proper attribution!

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Knitting terminology

Knitting terminology

#Textiles #Textile #Knitting #Gate #Fabric Open Loop: The open-loop is one in which the loop forming yarns doesn’t cross at the bottom of the loop. Closed-loop: In a closed-loop, the legs of the loop cross so that the loop closing takes place. Face loop: During loop formation when the new loop emerges through the old loop from back to face side it is called a face loop or weft knit loop. Back loop: If the new loop passes from the face side to the backside of old loop it is called as back loop or weft purl loop. Technical face: The side of the knitted fabric that consists of all the face or knitted loops is called the technical face of the fabric. Technical back: The side of the knitted fabric having full of the back or purl loop is called a needle loop. Normally the reverse side of the technical face is the technical back. Needle Loop: The upper part of the loop produced by the needle drawing the yarn is called a needle loop. Sinker loop: The lower part of the knitted loop is technically referred to as the sinker loop. It is the connection of two legs belonging to the neighboring stitches laying laterally. Course: The series of loops that are connected horizontally and continuously is called courses. Wale: The series of loops that intermeshes vertically is known as Wales. Stitch density: It is the number of stitches per unit area of a knitted fabric. It determines the area of the fabric. Single jersey (plain jersey): Weft knitted fabrics produced with one set of needles (both in tubular or flat form) are called single jersey (or) plain knitted fabrics. Double jersey: Weft knitted fabrics with two sets of needles mounted in two-needle beds are called double jersey or double knitted fabrics. Can you help us improve this page? Send us your contribution at info@textilecoach.net, we will update this page and give you proper attribution!

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WAXING IN TEXTILES || TYPES OF WAXES || TextileCoach

WAXING IN TEXTILES || TYPES OF WAXES || TextileCoach

Waxing: The process of coating the fabric with a layer of wax is known as waxing. Waxing is done for water repellency. Types of Waxes: Vegetable Wax. MC Wax. (Microcrystalline Wax) Paraffin Wax. Bee Wax. Types of Waxing Process: Kiss Waxing. Normal Waxing. Kiss Waxing: Waxing is done only on one side of the fabric with a truff roller setup. Recipe: Normal Waxing: Waxing is done by dipping the fabric in the truff i.e., both sides of the fabric are coated with wax. Recipe: The action of Chemicals: Vegetable Wax: Water Repellency. Aluminum Super Gel: To create Jelly texture. ZnO: To break the Jelly substance created. China Clay: Filling agent. Anti-Fungal Agent: Antifungal Behavior. Rice Bran Oil: Acts as Thinner. Processing Parameters: Wax temperature: wax is melted at 150oC. Calendaring roller temperature: 110oC. Machine Speed: Based on GSM. Effect of Speed on Waxed Fabric GSM: In the case of Kiss waxing with an increase in speed GSM increases. As the Roller speed increases add-on increases. In the case of Normal Waxing with an increase in speed, GSM decreases, As the speed increases contact time decreases so that pickup decreases and GSM decreases. Add-On Calculation: For Waxing there will be no MLR, but the recipe is done based on addon percentage. Add-On % = (Final GSM – Base GSM) X 100 / Base GSM. Waxing Machine: Zones in waxing machine. Feed Zone: Fabric is fed in open from. Waxing Zone: Waxing is done at this zone. Drying/Calendaring Zone: Here Waxed fabric is dried or heat set. Delivery Zone: Waxed Fabric is delivered in open width form. Can you help us improve this page? Send us your contribution at info@textilecoach.net, we will update this page and give you proper attribution!

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A  STUDY ON THE COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF EUCALYPTUS DYE ON PIQUE AND INTERLOCK COTTON KNIT MATER

A STUDY ON THE COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF EUCALYPTUS DYE ON PIQUE AND INTERLOCK COTTON KNIT MATER

#Fabric #textile #Moisture #Testing #Cotton #knit #Dye Natural dyes are derived from natural resources based upon their source of origin. These are broadly classified as plant, animal, mineral, and microbial dyes. As plants are the major sources of natural dyes interest in natural dyes grew. Information about natural dyeing was collected from the old literature and traditional dyeing practices in different regions were documented, compiled by various researchers. Later information on various dye-yielding plants, methods to grow them, harvesting dye parts, methods to dye wool and silk with natural dye, and color shades developed were also collected. Historically, plants have been used for the extraction of a majority of natural dyes. Many dyes are available from tree waste or can be easily grown in market gardens. The famous natural blue dye, indigo is obtained from the leaves of the plant Indigofera tinctoria. Various plant parts including roots, leaves, twigs, stems, heartwood, bark, wood shavings, flowers, fruits, rinds, hulls, husks, and the like serve as natural dye sources. Some plant-derived dyes have other applications as they can be used as food ingredients and medicines in traditional medicine systems. Natural dyes can produce special aesthetic qualities, when combined with the ethical significance of a product that is environmentally friendly, giving added value to textile production as craftwork. But this could also be in response to the negative impact created by synthetic dye manufacturing is having on the environment and human health. This is caused during dye synthesis, the release of undesirable/hazardous and toxic chemicals in nature and the effect synthetic dyes can have upon human health, as irritants/sensitizers synthetic dyes are often the cause of allergic reactions. In areas where synthetic dyes, mordants (fixatives), and other additives are imported and therefore relatively expensive, natural dyes can offer an attractive alternative. Recently there has been a revival of the growing interest in the application of natural dyes on natural fibers due to worldwide environmental consciousness. Therefore view in order to obtain newer shades with acceptable color fastness behavior and reproducible color yield, appropriate scientific techniques or procedures need to be derived from scientific studies on dyeing methods, dyeing process variables, dyeing kinetics, and compatibility of selective natural dyes. In the world today, the position of natural dyes and colorants, ‘nature’s colors’ are at crossroads. They will either vanish and with them, the ancient knowledge and skill that has advanced with their use over centuries and across civilizations or they will evolve to create a new form of coloration and with this be applied to new environmental/sustainable applications and possibility be recognized for the health/healing aspects they can provide. Currently, there is increasing interest in natural dyes and colorants, as interest grows within the Industrialized Nations in natural (Green) products and sustainable ways of living. Hence this leads to a renewed interest in natural dyes which has increased their commercial availability. Further growing interested in natural dye application is based on, not just the system of national heritage protection and multifunctional properties, but with interest found in the fact that a garment-dyed by natural dyes holds an alternative economical, touristic as well as humanly, ecological significance. This work is concerned with the extraction of dye from Eucalyptus bark and its application on selected cotton knit materials in an endeavor to study the application conditions and antibacterial activity. METHODOLOGY SELECTION OF FABRIC Fabrics made from cotton yarn have immense “Breathable” properties due to their high air permeability structure. Cotton is a natural fiber that possesses most of the distinctive comfort properties compared to other cellulosic fibers. Cotton fabric is breathable and transmits moisture away from the body and is absorbent that removes liquid from the skin. Because cotton is a natural product designed and manufactured into clothing, due to its many advantages, such as its ability to control moisture, insulate, provide comfort, hypoallergenic, weatherproof, and is a durable fabric. Keeping the above points in mind the investigator selected cotton material for the study. SELECTION OF FABRIC CONSTRUCTION Knitting is a process of fabric forming by interloping the loops of yarns. When one loop is drawn through another, loops are formed in horizontal or vertical directions. Due to the interesting looping structure of the yarn, the investigator selected the knitted fabrics, pique (PO) (2×2), and interlock (IO) (1×1) knit for the study. SELECTION OF DYE Natural dyes are better than synthetic dyes. Natural dyes are better products, as they do not contain chemicals harmful to health and the environment. Naturally dyed products are healthier and more reliable than chemical synthetic dyed products. Hence the investigator planned to select natural dye for dyeing the cotton knit Pique (PO) and Interlock (IO) fabrics for the study. SELECTION OF NATURAL DYE Eucalyptus bark is one of the most important sources of natural dye yielding several yellowish to brown colorants. The eucalyptus bark contains a high amount of tannins, phenols, and flavonoids. The tannins provide an auxochromic group to bind the coloring component to synthetic and natural fabrics. The eucalyptus bark was collected from trees, grown at Chikkanna Government Arts College, Tirupur. The shed eucalyptus bark was collected by the investigator. After the collection of barks, it was washed thoroughly with water to remove impurities present on the surface of the bark and dried. The dried eucalyptus barks were powdered. SELECTION OF MORDANT Terminalia chebula is a flowering evergreen tree native to Asia. The fruits of this tree are extensively used in traditional medicine systems. The pericarp of mature fruits of the Harad tree constitutes the drug. They are rich in hydrolyzable tannins (pyrogallic) and very astringent and with good lightfastness. The natural dyes have limited substantively for the fiber, so natural dyes require the use of mordants, which enhances the fixation of the natural colorant on the fiber by the formation of the complex with the dye. Myrobalan is both tannin and a dye, giving warm soft gold yellow color. Myrobalan works well for over-dyeing as well as pre dye. Myrobalan seed is powdered for the study and is used as a mordant. PREPARATION OF NATURAL DYE Dried powdered Eucalyptus bark, was used for the extraction of natural dye. For dyeing the Pique (PO), Interlock (IO) knit cotton fabric required grams of eucalyptus bark powder was taken based on the weight of the Pique (PO) and Interlock (IO) knit materials. The M:L ratio taken for extraction was 1:40. The dye solution was boiled at a temperature of 1000C for one and a half hours. The eucalyptus bark dye solution was filtered using a muslin material to remove fragments of bark particles if present. The extracted natural viscose dye of eucalyptus bark was kept ready for further process. PRE-TREATMENT OF COTTON KNITTED MATERIALS Scouring was given as pre-treatment to cotton knitted Pique (PO) and Interlock (IO) materials. The cotton knitted Pique (PO) and Interlock (IO) materials were steeped into warm water with 10g of ariel soap powder for half an hour. After the desired time, the material was taken out and excess liquor was drained out. Then the knit materials were rinsed in cold water, dried in shade. The knitted cotton Pique (PO) and Interlock (IO) materials were ironed without any wrinkles for the dyeing process. APPLICATION OF NATURAL DYE The filtered viscose-natural dye extracted from Eucalyptus bark was taken in an M:L ratio of 1:20 (6%) for both Pique (PO) and Interlock (IO) knit materials. To this natural dye liquor, required grams of myrobalan mordant powder (3%) was added to the dye bath for simultaneous mordanting and stirred continuously without lumps. The cotton knitted Pique (PO) and Interlock (IO) materials were pre-soaked in water for god absorbency. The extra water was squeezed out. The Pique (PO) and Interlock (IO) knit materials were then steeped into the eucalyptus bark dye bath for dyeing. The dye bath was boiled for half an hour at 50o C - 600 C. After the required time, the Pique (PD) and Interlock (ID) knit materials were taken, rinsed in cold water, and dried in shade. FABRIC TESTS The original Pique (PO) and Interlock (IO) knitted and dyed Pique (PD) and Interlock (ID) knitted materials were subjected to fabric tests such as fabric weight (ASTM D3776), Bursting strength (ISO 13938-2-2010), Drape (IHTM 21) and Pilling (ISO12945-2-2002). The color fastness tests are also analyzed in dyed pique (PD) and interlock (ID) cotton knit materials for sunlight (ISO 105 B02), washing (ISO 105 C06), perspiration (ISO 105 E04), and rubbing (ISO-105-X12). The dyed knit fabrics were subjected to the antibacterial test. ANTIBACTERIAL TEST The test fabrics PO (original-1), IO (original-2), PD (dyed-1), and ID(dyed-2) were analyzed for antibacterial testing using the standard EN ISO-20645 test method. An antibacterial test was done to dye Pique PD and Interlock ID materials. Antibacterial qualitative evaluation was carried out. Test organism cultures micro-organisms used for the study are Escherichia coli (gram-negative) bacteria and S. aureus (gram-positive) bacteria. E. coli (plate 5) was selected for its resistance to common antimicrobial agents and S. Aureus (plate 6) is the major cause for cross-infection and it is the most frequently evaluated species. Using the parallel streak method, antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was tested using dyed Pique (PD), Interlock (ID) against original Pique (PO) Interlock (IO) knit samples. Test specimens of PO (original-1), IO (original-2), PD (dyed-1) and ID (dyed-2) were cut into pieces (20mm in diameter). Sterile AATCC bacteriostasis agar plates were prepared. Using a sterile 4mm inoculating loop, one loop full of bacterial culture was transferred by swabbing all around the surface of the agar plate and also covering the central area of the Petri dish. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. The inoculated plates were examined for the interruption of growth along with the swabs of inoculum beneath the fabric and for a clear zone of inhibition beyond the fabric edge. The zone of inhibition around the test specimen is calculated in mm. The result obtained from the antibacterial test is recorded under results and discussion in Table I. CONSTRUCTION OF APPAREL The original cotton pique (PO and PD) and interlock (IO and ID) knit materials was then converted to a T-Shirt for four years kid using sunburst tie and dye technique ANALYSIS OF FABRIC WEIGHT The average result for fabric weight of PO, IO, PD and ID pique and interlock cotton knit materials is shown in Figure 1.When compared within original and dyed pique and interlock knit materials from fig. 1, PD shows an increase in fabric weight when compared to PO. Similarly, ID also shows an increase in fabric weight than IO. When compared between original pique and interlock knit materials, IO shows increase in fabric weight when compared to PO. When compared between dyed pique and interlock knit materials ID also shows an increase in fabric weight than PD. When compared among the four PO, IO, PD and ID cotton knit materials, ID showed increase in fabric weight. ANALYSIS OF BURSTING STRENGTH The average result for bursting strength of PO, IO, PD and ID pique and interlock cotton knit materials is shown in Figure 2. When compared within original and dyed pique and interlock knit materials, from fig. 2, PO shows higher bursting strength than PD. But ID reveled higher bursting strength than IO. When compared between original pique and interlock knit materials, PO showed higher bursting strength than IO. Whereas when compared between dyed pique and interlock knit materials, ID showed higher bursting strength than PD. When compared among the four PO, IO, PD and ID cotton knit materials, ID showed best bursting strength. ANALYSIS OF DRAPE The drapability grade result obtained from pique and interlocks knit materials, reveals that when compared within and between PO, IO, PD and ID shows similar satisfactory draping quality. ANALYSIS OF PILLING The pilling grade results obtained from pique and interlock knit materials from reveals that when compared within original and dyed pique knit materials PD is satisfactory in pilling nature than PO. When compared within original and dyed interlock knit materials, both IO and ID did not reveal good pilling nature. When compared between original and dyed pique and interlock knit materials PD showed satisfactory in pilling. When compared among all the four cotton knit materials PD revealed satisfactory pilling result. ANALYSIS OF COLOUR FASTNESS TESTS The colour fastness tests are analyzed in dyed pique (PD) and interlock (ID) cotton knit materials for sunlight, washing, perspiration and rubbing. ANALYSIS OF COLOUR FASTNESS TO SUNLIGHT The result obtained for colour fastness to sunlight shows that the colour change when analyzed for the dyed cotton knit pique (PD) and interlock (ID) materials when tested against sunlight showed slight change to (equal) no change. ANALYSIS OF COLOUR FASTNESS TO WASHING The result shows that there is light colour change in the sample. When checked for staining the dyed cotton knit pique and interlock materials showed no colour change and staining. ANALYSIS OF COLOUR FASTNESS TO PERSPIRATION Perspiration is carried both in acid and alkaline medium. From, the result obtained for colour change and staining for acid perspiration samples revels that there is satisfactory results (no colour change and staining) for both PD and ID knit materials. In Alkaline medium, PD and ID knit samples showed no colour change but slight colour staining. ANALYSIS OF COLOUR FASTNESS TO RUBBING Rubbing is carried both in dry and wet medium. From, the results for both dry and wet rubbing for PD and ID knit samples showed satisfactory - no colour change and staining. ANALYSIS OF ANTI BACTERIAL TEST The result obtained for anti bacterial test for PO, IO, PD and ID cotton knit materials is recorded in Table I It is noted from table I, Antibacterial of the eucalyptus bark dye extract, original and dyed materials was tested against gram negative (Escherichia coli) and gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacterias. PD and ID indicates that the eucalyptus bark dye extract resulted in a zone of inhibition of 26 mm in PD and 28 mm in ID for E.coli and 27 mm in both PD and ID for staphylococcus aureus. The result clearly shows the eucalyptus bark dyed samples inhibits both bacteria which proves that antimicrobial agent was successfully coated on pique and interlock cotton knit materials. The PO and IO did not inhibit any of the bacterias. The presence of tannins and flavonoids in eucalyptus bark, both of which exhibit antimicrobial activity, may have been responsible for the higher antibacterial activity of the eucalyptus bark dye extract. Hence, it can be concluded that the eucalyptus dyed samples have good antibacterial activity against test organisms Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. CONCULSION Consumers benefit when they are not exposed to environmental toxins, such as heavy metals, pesticides and other chemicals that are embedded in the fibers of conventionally produced textiles. It can be concluded from the present study that the eucalyptus dye has good antibacterial activity. Hence, the eucalyptus dye material and apparels can be used for green apparels. There is lack of awareness among people about eco fashion as the low efforts among retailers or manufacturers to promote green goods and benefits thereof, failure of eco- labeling scheme in India, limited information on production processes among consumers, availability of narrow range of green products in the market. Therefore, it is necessary to create more awareness among consumers regarding eco fashion. More brands need to launch into manufacturing of green fashion to cater to the demands of customers and for the benefit of both humans and environment in the real scenario. So in near future if awareness is created among consumers then more natural dyed material and apparels will be focused in the market. Can you help us improve this page? Send us your contribution on info@textilecoach.net, We will update this page and give you proper attribution!

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Measurement of crimp percentage

Measurement of crimp percentage

#Textile #Crimp #Gate #Crimp% Measurement of crimp percentage: To measure the yarn crimp two values are must be known, the cloth length from which yarn is removed and the straightened length of the thread. In order to straighten the yarn, some amount of tension must be applied just sufficient to remove all the crimps without stretching the yarn. The standardized tensions as per British standards. The principle of yarn crimp determination is very simple. With a fine pen and rule, lines are drawn on a piece of cloth at a known distance. Some of the threads raveled out the yarns are straightened without stretching and the stretched length is noted and from that, the crimp is calculated. The difficulty lies in the straightening of the yarn without stretching it. To do this, the following three methods are available: Straighten by hand: This is inaccurate since we do not know the force applied. Straighten by standard weight: This is satisfactory if we know the weight to use. Determine the straightened length from the load-elongation curve: This is the most accurate method. Specimen Preparation: Rectangular stripes are carefully marked on the cloth and each strip is cut in the form of a flap as shown in the fig. below. From each strip, 10 threads will be removed. Normally 3 strips in warp way and 3 strips in weft way are cut. Removal of the Threads from the Flap: The central part of the first thread is separated from the flap by means of a needle, but the two extreme ends are left secured. One end is then removed and placed in the clamp of the tester and the other end is removed and placed in the second clamp. By this method, there will be no loss in the twist of the yarn and also due to minimum handling, there will be no stretch in the yarn. Several crimp testers such as W.I.R.A., Shirley, and the manra are available and here Shirley's crimp tester is taken for discussion. Shirley Crimp Tester: The instrument consists of a scale fixed on the base, V grooves are provided to support the balancing head, and a mirror at the other end. At one end of the balancing head, a fixed clamp is provided and at its other end on the frame, index lines are marked. Another movable clamp is provided on the base and can be slid over the scale. Tension weight is provided on the balancing head to change the tension according to the yarn count. The tension scale is marked in two ranges 0-3 gms and 0-175gms. Procedure: The counts of the warp and weft yarns are first determined and the correct tension is calculated. The sliding weight on the balancing head is adjusted to the required tension. The yarn sample is prepared as above and one end of the yarn is carefully inserted in the clamp such that the end of the yarn is in line with the rear edge of the clamp. With the movable jaw set to a length somewhat less than the estimated length of the yarn, the other end of the yarn is inserted into it. The movable jaw is then moved slowly to the right until the index marks on the balancing head and the frame are in line. Then the length of the yarn corresponding to the red mark on the moveable grip is noted from the base scale. Then, the crimp can be calculated as, Long–Elongation Curve Method: Parallel ink lines are marked on a piece of cloth P distance apart. Five yarns are unraveled and one is tested at a time. The yarn is clamped at one of the ink spots and the yarn is allowed to hang vertically in front of a scale. A small clamp of known weight is hung on the yarn at the other ink spot. At this load, the elongation is read. Successively small loads are applied and the elongation at each new load is noted. Then a curve is drawn by taking the elongation values on the x-axis and the load values on the Y-axis, as shown in fig. In this curve, there is a curved portion OB and a straight-line portion BC. The region OB represents the removal of the crimp. The region BC represents the stretch of the yarn. If there were no crimp, the curve would be all the straight-line DC. Therefore, the distance OD represents the elongation of the yarn due to the removal of the crimp. Then the original length P, plus the value OD is the length of the yarn before weaving L. i.e., L = P + OD then the Crimp percentage can be calculated as follows: Crimp% = (L - P)/ P X 100 Can you help us improve this page? Send us your contribution at info@textilecoach.net, we will update this page and give you proper attribution!

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Role of Geotextile in Highway Stabilization

Role of Geotextile in Highway Stabilization

#Textile #GeoTextile #Roads India has one of the most extensive highway systems in the world most of the roads built in the country pre-independence era were constructed using John Macadam more than 100 years old principle in which dry pavement structure would be provided on the subgrade having on slope center of the section. Still, some of the last decades have seen a tremendous increase in the volume at the same time three has been increased in the weight of the vehicles and number of axle loads which accelerated the deterioration of the pavements. To overcome this problem the contact surface is changed by asphalt and concrete. There is overwhelming evidence that a larger percentage of the distressed roads sections are poor drainage which clearly speakers of the need to provide effective water drainage which is often neglected. Various modes of water penetrate into pavement: Subsurface water from sides of the pavements Subsoil water from the underside in capillary action. Intercepted water due to over flooding of drainage. Groundwater from interrupted aquifers and localized springs. Percolation through cracks and poor pavement surface. Sub-soil water from the side of the pavement. Effect of water pavement (Distress): Continuous contract causes stripping of asphalt mixture and affects durability and D cracking of concrete. It reduces the strength of granular materials and subgrade soils. It causes the pumping of concrete pavement with subsequent faulting and degradation of pavement. Climatic changes severally damage the surface. In cold countries where freezing action and surface continuously supply of ground pavement damages. Conventional methods of pavement drainage: Subsoil drainage. Prevention of roof water infiltration. GEOTEXTILE MATERIALS: Most of the geotextiles presently in use are manufactured from petroleum derivatives such as polymer, polyethylene, and polypropylenes. They are also resistant to wear and tears and to adverse environmental conditions. Fabrics manufactured from wood plum (rayon and acetate) and silica (glass fiber) have also been found in limited use in the civil egg. The term geotextiles are being increasingly used to include such materials as coir and jute netting, which find primary. Application in erosion geogrids, such as tensor and hatch are also considered the larger members of the geotextiles family. Engineering Characteristics and functions: Important engineering properties of geotextiles are tensile strength, burst and puncture strength modulus of elasticity, permeability. Pore size distribution, abrasion resistance ultraviolet, stability against a hostile environment. The main functions of geotextiles are reinforcement, filtration, drainage, control separation. Highways on soft or problematic soils, rails roads, reinforced earth embankment and walls, dams drainage control stabilization of soil and rock slopes, erosion control. Role of Geotextiles in Highway Stabilization: Whether a drainage system is part of the original road design or remedial measures it must be hydraulically efficient and shouldn't be subject to clogging. It requires course element permits water flow and filter element for restraining soil from piping conventionally, a combination of these requirements are met by the use of well-graded aggregates. Geotextiles changes this approach. In drainage application geotextiles act as filter elements that prevent the drain system from getting clogged. Expensive well-graded aggregate can be replaced with open-graded gravel. Moreover, because of the high filtration efficiency, smaller volumes of aggregates are required and the construction task is very simple. MECHANISM OF GEOTEXTILES: Filtration mechanism of geotextiles The effective geotextiles don't actually filter the water. It acts as a catalyst for the formation of a stable soil filter cake. In the early life of drain, a certain amount of soil fines would pass through the geotextile fabric. Larger soil particles are retained on it a bridge network. Behind this, a layer of finer particles collects from adjacent undisturbed soil. Once the filter cake has been established no soil will pass through the system. While the cake now does the filtering job, the geotextiles hold it in place preventing it from collapsing into the draining aggregate. Any type of geotextiles will not perform a satisfactory filtration job. An effective fabric should have a large number of openings of fixed size is in woven fabric. Most of the non-woven fabrics meet this criterion. The filter fabric shouldn't trap particles within its pore openings and it shouldn't change porosity being compressed under loads. As far as any construction project local conditions must be evaluated in order to properly design the drainage system such as soil characteristics, external loads imposed on the system (static or dynamic), and prevailing hydraulic conditions. Separation mechanism of geotextiles: There are several drainage-related functions in the construction maintenance and repairs of roads beds. The primary geotextiles functions in roads way applications are separations. It consists of placing the geotextiles fabrics as separation fabrics as a separation barrier between the subgrade and sub-base layer. Reinforcing effect of geotextile: Since geotextiles have appreciable tensile strength, the use of geotextiles layers can also be expected to have a reinforcing effect. Depending upon the type of subgrade, type of geotextile layer and anticipated wheel loads, a reduction in the thickness of 10 to 25% is possible. Flexible overlays over distressed rigid or pavements are known to suffer from reflection cracking, leading to an increase in the life of the overlay, which is normally a high-cost asphaltic concrete surface. The use of existing pavements has been found to sustainability reduce the reflection cracking whenever a deteriorated pavement is to strengthened by providing an overlay with geotextiles cracks if any are to be filled with asphalt and asphalt sealant is supplied on the existing deteriorated pavement. The fabric is then placed on the sealed by hand or mechanical device. Can you help us improve this page? Send us your contribution at info@textilecoach.net, we will update this page and give you proper attribution!

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YARN CRIMP

YARN CRIMP

#Textile #Yarn #Crimp #Gate #TextileCoach Crimp: Due to the interlacement of warp and weft yarns, a certain amount of waviness is imparted to the warp and weft yarns in a fabric. This waviness is called crimp. Hence the apparent length of a thread as it exists in the fabric is less than its straightened length. Crimp Percentage: It is defined as the mean difference between the straightened thread length and the distance between the ends of the thread while in the cloth, expressed as a percentage. Influence of Crimp on Fabric Properties: Warp and Weft crimp percentages are two factors that have an influence on the following fabric properties: Resistance to Abrasion Shrinkage Fabric Behavior during Strength Testing Faults in Fabric Fabric Design Fabric Costing Resistance to Abrasion: The abrasion resistance of fabric will be more if the crimp in the yarn is more. The yarns with high crimp take the burn of abrasive action. This is because curves formed as the yarn bends around a transverse yarn, will protrude from the surface of the fabric and meet the destructive abrasive agent first. The other set of yarns lying in the center of the fabric will only play their part in resisting abrasion when the highly crimped threads are nearly worn through. Shrinkage: When the yarns are wet, they swell and consequently say a warp thread has a longer bending path to take a swollen weft yarn. The warp yarn must either increase the length or alternatively the weft yarns must move closer together. An increase in the length of warp yarn requires the application of tension and therefore when the tension is absent equilibrium conditions will be attained by the weft yarns moved closer together. The largest amount of shrinkage is that represented by an increase of crimp. Yarn shrinkage takes second place and generally it is just less than the increase in the crimp. Since shrinkage is mainly due to yarn swelling and the resulting crimp increase, mechanical means of controlled pre-shrinking have been developed such as sanforizing and Rigmel processes. Fabric Behavior During Strength Testing: When a strip of fabric is extended in one direction crimp is removed and the yarns are straightened. This causes the yarns at right angles to the loading direction to be crimped further i.e., when the load is applied along the warp threads crimp in the warp yarns is removed and that in the weft yarns is increased. This is known as crimp interchange. The sample loses its original rectangular shape and the middle portion to the strip contracts. This is known as waisting. Due to the removal of the crimp, the load-elongation curve will show a relatively high extension per unit increase in load in the early stages of strength testing of a strip of fabric. Faults in Fabric: Variation in crimp can give rise to faults in fabric, eg, reduction in strength, bright picks, diamond bars in rayons, strips in yarn-dyed cloths, etc. The crimp variation is mainly due to the improper tensions on the yarn during yarn preparation and weaving. Fabric Design: Control of crimp percentage is necessary when a fabric is designed with a degree of extensibility. Some fabrics require control of crimp in the finishing processes to give the correct crimp balance between warp and weft so that the finished appearance is satisfactory. Therefore, the tensions applied must be carefully controlled. Fabric costing: Since crimp is related to length, it follows that the quantity of yarn required to produce a given length of fabric is affected by the warp and weft crimp percentages. Therefore in calculating the cost and the yarn requirements, the values of crimp play an important role. Can you help us improve this page? Send us your contribution at info@textilecoach.net, we will update this page and give you proper attribution!

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Fabric Weight || GSM

Fabric Weight || GSM

#Textile #Gate #Fabric #Fashion #GSM #FabricWeight #TextileCoach GSM| Fabric Weight: The weight of a fabric can be described in the following two ways: Weight per unit area in terms of ounces per square yard or grams per square meter. Weight per unit length in terms of ounce per yard or grams per meter. The weight of a fabric can be determined by one of the following three methods: Method 1: Weighing of an entire cut, roll or bale of fabric when the length and width of the fabric are known, using the following formula. Method 2: Weighing of 1yard lengths of a fabric. This weight is called as weight per running yard. The weight of a unit length of fabric will be accepted by its width. Therefore, it is necessary to know the agreed standard width upon which the weight per running yard is based. Method 3: Weighing of small specimens which have been cut from the fabric. These specimens should not be smaller than 4 square inches area and if sufficient is available the desirable minimum area is 20 square inches. With the use of a die of proper size the samples can be prepared much faster. Some quadrant balances have one scale graduated in ounces per square yard. A template of area 1/1000 sq. yard is used to cut the sample and is suspended from the sample hook of the quadrant balance and the reading is noted directly against the pointer on the scale for quick checks this method is used. The weight per square yard of the fabric can be determined from the weights of warp and weft using the following formulas: Then, Weight per sq. yard of the fabric in ounce = weight of warp + weight of weft Relationship between weight per unit area and weight per unit length: Assuming that the effect of selvedge construction is negligible weight per unit area can be converted to weight per unit length and vice versa using the following relationships: W= 36R / w and R=Ww/36 Where, W = weight per square yard R = Weight per running yard W = Fabric width in inches. Can you help us improve this page? Send us your contribution on info@textilecoach.net, we will update this page and give you proper attribution!

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Retailing in Textiles

Retailing in Textiles

#textile #RBA #Retailing #Apparels #Garments Retailing: Retailing is the process of selling goods and services from businesses to the end-user i.e., the customer. Retailer: A person or business that sells goods to the public in relatively small quantities for use or consumption rather than for resale. Functions of Retailer: The function of breaking bulk The function of creating place utility Stocking varieties of goods Providing credit facilities to customers Providing information to customers and wholesalers Estimating the demand and arranging the purchase of the product Acting as consumers agent Marketing functions Connecting link The function of breaking bulk Retailing breakup large quantities into smaller units such as individual canes, bottles, packets, appropriate for consumer use. The function of creating place utility Retailers create place utility by transporting goods to the point of consumption. Stocking Varieties of goods Retailers buy varieties of goods from various manufacturers or wholesalers. Thus, a retailer provides a wide range of choices enabling the consumers to select the products of their choice. Providing credit facilities to customers Retailers grant credit facilities to consumers and thus increase their short-term purchasing power. Providing information to customers and wholesalers Retailers act as a link between the buyers and wholesalers/manufacturers. In the distribution channel, retailers are in direct contact with customers. Retailers supply market information to manufacturers either directly or through wholesalers. Estimating the demand and arranging the purchase of the product Retailers create demand for products by communicating with their customers. This demand creation is quite helpful for manufacturers and wholesalers. Acting as consumer’s agent The retailers anticipate the wants of the consumers and then supply them with the right kind of goods at a reasonable price. Their job is to make the consumer’s buying as easy and convenient as possible. Marketing functions Retailers perform several marketing functions such as sales promotion, advertising, and point of purchase display. They induce customers to buy products from reputed companies. Connecting link The retailers are the connecting link between the wholesaler and the ultimate consumer. Retail Equation: Marketing has been defined as the process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and freely exchanging products and services of value with others. The Chartered Institute of Management defines marketing as the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating, and satisfying customer requirements profitably. One can look at the marketing – retail equation from two perspectives – one being that of a manufacturer and the second from the point of view of the retailer. With the growth of industrialization and urbanization, the distance between the manufacturer of a product and the actual consumer has increased. In our world, many products are manufactured in one country and sold to a market in another. Most producers no longer sell their products or services directly to the consumer, but instead, use intermediaries to get their product to the final consumer. The marketing channel design is largely based on the level of service desired by the target consumer. Here, the retailer provides valuable inputs to the manufacturer on the products and the consumers. Some of the most common marketing channels are illustrated below: Manufacturer → Wholesaler → Retailer → Consumer Manufacturer → Retailer → Consumer Manufacturer → Consumer Manufacturers or suppliers that offer products for immediate consumption are known as direct manufacturers or suppliers e.g. Eureka Forbes, whose door-to-door salesman offers its products directly to customers is an example of a company that offers its products directly to the consumers. The Direct Mail-order business companies are another example. More traditional manufacturers or supplies are associated with delayed consumption e.g. shown below. Companies, which deal primarily with immediate consumption are known as service providers, while those that deal with delayed consumption are retailers. An example of a service provider under this definition would be a cinema, while a retailer in the same sector would be a video shop. The other perspective of looking at the marketing retail relationship is from that of the retail industry itself. Every retailer needs marketing. The marketing efforts of a multi-brand retailer like Food World and Shopper’s Stop are different from those of an own-brand retailer like Westside. However, the basic principles of marketing are no different for a retailer than for any other supply organization. What is different is the immediacy of many retail marketing exchanges and the range of activities that can be undertaken by the retail marketer to achieve a profitable exchange with a customer? While modern marketing theory may have stemmed from producers of the fast-moving consumer goods (FMVG) manufacturers, more recent developments such as relationship marketing and interactive marketing have evolved from the needs of service providers. These ‘new’ marketing activities focus on the dynamic link between a specific supplier and its immediate customer. It is here that the needs of retailing coincide with the domain of marketing. There are two specific dimensions to retail marketing: first, how to attract customers into the retail environs – shop, restaurant, supermarket, or the ‘virtual’ Internet store for instance and second, how to persuade those customers to purchase from the store. Both are necessary to achieve success. The rise of the Retailer: In the not-so-distant past, manufacturers created a product, advertised it slickly, and sold it through their distribution channel. The manufacturing companies enjoyed economic power, as they were significantly bigger compared to the distributors of the retailers. They determined the prices of the products that the retailer could stock and also the dealer and distributor margins. They would also independently advertise for their products. In case of a dispute with the distributor or retailer, it would not be rare for the manufacturer to discontinue supplies. However, much has changed. Today, retail has emerged as a separate function by itself. The environment in a large organized retail store is significantly different from that in a traditional or mom-and-pop store. customer proximity Customer proximity is a company's commitment to being highly connected to the customer and their experience. Both their experiences with your product and service, but more importantly, their experiences every day as they go about their business when they are not dealing with your company. FDI in Retail: Foreign direct investment (FDI) in the retail sector in India is restricted. In 2006, the government eased retail policy for the first time, allowing up to 51 percent FDI through the single-brand retail route. Since then, there has been a steady increase in FDI in the retail sector, and the cumulative FDI in single-brand retail stood at $195 million by the middle of 2010 (DIPP, 2010). According to the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) of the Government of India, single-brand retail comprises those retailers selling products “of a ‘single brand’ only, such that products should be sold under the same brand internationally; and single-brand product retailing covers only products which are branded during manufacturing. In this category, FDI is allowed to the extent of 51 percent In contrast, no FDI is allowed in the multi-brand retail category. This includes all firms in organized retail that seek to stock and sell multiple brands, such as large international retailers like Wal-Mart and Carrefour. This is the sector that is most under dispute. The Retail sector of India is vast and has huge potential for growth and development, as the majority of its constituents are un-organized. The retail sector of India handles about $250 billion every year and is expected by veteran economists to reach $660 billion by the year 2015. The business in the organized retail sector of India is to grow most and faster at the rate of 15-20% every year and can reach the level of $100 billion by the year 2015. Here, it is noteworthy that the retail sector of India contributes about 15% to the national GDP, and employs a massive workforce of it, after the agriculture sector. India's growing economy with a rate of approximately 8% per year makes its retail sector highly fertile and profitable to the foreign investors of all sectors of commerce and economy, all over the world. Organized retailing entails trading conducted by licensed retailers and unorganized retailing includes all types of low-cost trading like local shops, small roadside stores, and temporary shops or door-to-door selling of various goods. Until now, according to the Indian retailing laws, Foreign Direct Investment in the multi-brand retail market was prohibited. But the government is thinking to open the FDI in retail in India which implies that foreign investment in retailing is possible up to 51%. Now the announcement of retail FDI in India has triggered a series of debates on both positive and negative notes and become a political issue. Advantages And Disadvantages: Advantages of FDI in the retail sector in India: Growth in the economy: Due to the coming of foreign companies’ new infrastructure will be built, thus the real estate sector will grow consequently banking sector, as money needs to be required to build infrastructure would be provided by banks. Job opportunities: Estimates shows that this will create about 80Lakh jobs. These career opportunities will be created mostly in retail, real estate. But it will create a positive impact on other sectors as well. Read about career options in the Retail sector….. Benefits to farmers: In most cases, in the retailing business, the intermediaries have dominated the interface between the manufacturers or producers and the consumers. Hence the farmers and manufacturers lose their actual share of the profit margin as the lion’s share is eaten up by the middlemen. This issue can be resolved by FDI, as farmers might get contract farming where they will supply to a retailer based upon demand and will get good cash for that, they need not search for buyers. Benefits to consumers: Consumers will get a variety of products at low prices compared to market rates, and will have more choice to get international brands in one place. Lack of infrastructure in the retailing chain has been one of the common issues in India for years which has led the process to an incompetent market mechanism. In the last years, the Public distribution system is proved to be significantly ineffective. Even though the government arranged for subsidies, the food inflation has caused its negative impact continuously and it can be handled by FDI. Disadvantages of FDI in the retail sector in India: According to the non-government cult, FDI will drain out the country’s share of revenue to foreign countries which may cause a negative impact on India’s overall economy. The domestic organized retail sector might not be competitive enough to tackle international players and might lose its market share. Many of the small business owners and workers from other functional areas may lose their jobs, as lots of people are into unorganized retail businesses such as small shops. FDI Policy In India: FDI as defined in Dictionary of Economics (Graham Bannock et.al) is an investment in a foreign country through the acquisition of a local company or the establishment there of an operation on a new (Greenfield) site. To put it in simple words, FDI refers to capital inflows from abroad that are invested in or to enhance the production capacity of the economy. Foreign Investment in India is governed by the FDI policy announced by the Government of India and the provision of the Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) 1999. The Reserve Bank of India (‘RBI’) in this regard had issued a notification, which contains the Foreign Exchange Management (Transfer or Issue of security by a person resident outside India) Regulations, 2000. This notification has been amended from time to time. The Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India is the nodal agency for motoring and reviewing the FDI policy on a continued basis and changes in sectoral policy/ sectoral equity cap. The FDI policy is notified through Press Notes by the Secretariat for Industrial Assistance (SIA), Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP). The foreign investors are free to invest in India, except few sectors/activities, where prior approval from the RBI or Foreign Investment Promotion Board (‘FIPB’) would be required. FDI Policy Concerning Retailing: It will be prudent to look into Press Note 4 of 2006 issued by DIPP and consolidated FDI Policy issued in October 2010 which provide the sector-specific guidelines for FDI about the conduct of trading activities. FDI up to 100% for cash and carry wholesale trading and export trading allowed under the automatic route. FDI up to 51 % with prior Government approval (i.e. FIPB) for retail trade of ‘Single Brand’ products, subject to Press Note 3 (2006 Series). FDI is not permitted in Multi Brand Retailing in India. Life cycle in retail: A theory of retail competition that states that retailing institutions, like the products they distribute, pass through an identifiable cycle. This cycle can be partitioned into four distinct stages: Innovation, Accelerated development, Maturity, and Decline. Classification of Retailing Formats The retailing formats can be classified into the following types as shown in the diagram Ownership Based Retailing Let us see these retailers in detail − Independent Retailers − They own and run a single shop, and determine their policies independently. Their family members can help in business and the ownership of the unit can be passed from one generation to the next. The biggest advantage is they can build a personal rapport with consumers very easily. For example, stand-alone grocery shops, florists, stationery shops, book shops, etc. Chain Stores − When multiple outlets are under common ownership it is called a chain of stores. Chain stores offer and keep similar merchandise. They are spread over cities and regions. The advantage is, the stores can keep selected merchandise according to the consumers’ preferences in a particular area. For example, Westside Stores, Shopper’s Stop, etc. Franchises − These are stores that run business under an established brand name or a particular format by an agreement between a franchiser and a franchisee. They can be of two types − Business format. For example, Pizza Hut. Product format. For example, Ice cream parlors of Amul. Consumers Co-Operative Stores − These are businesses owned and run by consumers to provide essentials at reasonable cost as compared to market rates. They have to be contemporary with the current business and political policies to keep the business healthy. For example, Sahakar Bhandar from India, Puget Consumers Food Co-Operative from the north US, Dublin Food Co-Operative from Ireland. Merchandise Based Retailing Let us see these in detail − Convenience Stores − They are small stores generally located near residential premises, and are kept open till late night or 24x7. These stores offer essentials such as food, eggs, milk, toiletries, and groceries. They target consumers who want to make quick and easy purchases. For example, mom-and-pop stores, stores located near petrol pumps, 7-Eleven from the US, etc. Supermarkets − These are large stores with high volume and low profit margins. They target mass consumer and their selling area ranges from 8000 sq. ft. to 10,000 sq. ft. They offer fresh as well as preserved food items, toiletries, groceries, and basic household items. Here, at least 70% of the selling space is reserved for food and grocery products. For example, Food Bazar and Tesco. Hypermarkets − These are one-stop shopping retail stores with at least 3000 sq. ft. selling space, out of which 35% space is dedicated towards non-grocery products. They target consumers over a large area and often share space with restaurants and coffee shops. The hypermarket can spread over the space of 80,000 sq. ft. to 250,000 sq. ft. They offer exercise equipment, cycles, CD/DVDs, Books, Electronics equipment, etc. For example, Big Bazar from India, Walmart from the US. Specialty Stores − These retail stores offer a particular kind of merchandise such as home furnishing, domestic electronic appliances, computers, and related products, etc. They also offer high-level service and product information to consumers. They occupy at least 8000 sq. ft. selling space. For example, Gautier Furniture and Croma from India, High & Mighty from the UK. Departmental Stores − It is a multi-level, multi-product retail store spread across an average size of 20,000 sq. ft. to 50,000 sq. ft. It offers to sell space in the range of 10% to 70% for food, clothing, and household items. For example, The Bombay Store, Ebony, Meena Bazar from India, Marks & Spencer from the UK. Factory Outlets − These are retail stores that sell items that are produced in excess quantity at discounted prices. These outlets are located close to manufacturing units or in association with other factory outlets. For example, Nike, Bombay Dyeing factory outlets. Catalog Showrooms − These retail outlets keep catalogs of the products for the consumers to refer to. The consumer needs to select the product, write its product code, and handover it to the clerk who then manages to provide the selected product from the company’s warehouse. For example, Argos from the UK. India’s retail HyperCity has joined hands with Argos to provide a catalog of over 4000 best quality products in the categories of computers, home furnishing, electronics, cookware, fitness, etc. Non-Store Based (Direct) Retailing It is the form of retailing where the retailer is in direct contact with the consumer at the workplace or home. The consumer becomes aware of the product via email or phone call from the retailer, or through an ad on the television, or Internet. The seller hosts a party for interacting with people. Then introduces and demonstrates the products, their utility, and benefits. Buying and selling happen at the same place. The consumer itself is a distributor. For example, Amway and Herbalife multi-level marketing. Non-Store based retailing includes non-personal contact-based retailing such as − Mail Orders/Postal Orders/E-Shopping − The consumer can refer to a product catalog on the internet and place an order for purchasing the product via email/post. Telemarketing − The products are advertised on television. The price, warranty, return policies, buying schemes, contact number, etc. are described at the end of the Ad. The consumers can place an order by calling the retailer’s number. The retailer then delivers the product to the consumer’s doorstep. For example, Asian Skyshop. Automated Vending/Kiosks − It is most convenient to the consumers and offers frequently purchased items round the clock, such as drinks, candies, chips, newspapers, etc. The success of non-store-based retailing hugely lies in the timely delivery of the appropriate products. Service-Based Retailing These retailers provide various services to the end consumer. The services include banking, car rentals, electricity, and cooking gas container delivery. The success of service-based retailers lies in service quality, customization, differentiation and timeliness of service, technological up-gradation, and consumer-oriented pricing. 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Instruments used for count determination

Instruments used for count determination

#Textile #Count #Gate #Tf_Gate #Yarn #Testing #Spinning The following instrument is generally used to determine the count of the yarn with the wrap reel. The wrap reel is used to prepare the sample of length 120 Yards. Analytical Balance. Knowles Balance. Quadrant Balance. Beesley Balance. Stubb yarn Balance. Analytical Balance: In the mills, the leas of yarn are wrapped using the wrap reel and their weight is found out using the analytical balance. The weights are measured in terms of grains and the count is calculated using the formula. Count Ne = 1000 / Weight of a lea in grains For the internal routine testing purpose, this may be considered sufficiently accurate for the end in view. 1 grain = 0.0647989 grams. Knowles Balance: This is a direct reading yarn count balance. It is used when the sample is available in large quantities such as hank, ring cops, etc. so that leas of 120 yards can be wrapped using the wrap reel. Knowles Balance is similar to the ordinary physical balance as shown in the above fig. Behind the beam, the balance, a hexagonal scale, or a rectangular board is mounted. The principle used in this instrument is the fixed weight and fixed-length system i.e., principles of the moment of balancing length. The hexagonal scale or the rectangular board is mounted on a pillar, behind the main pillar of the balance. The faces of the hexagonal scale are lettered from A to F and each face is calibrated to cover different each range of count from coarse to fine. In the case of a rectangular board, seven scales are calibrated and are lettered from A to G. Anyone face of the rectangular board can be brought to the level of the beam by turning a knob in front of the balance. Two counterweights are provided with the instrument, one is circular and the other is rectangular and are marked with the letters A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. The circular weight is placed on the left-hand pane of the balance and the rectangular weight on the beam. The sample of the yarn in the lea form is placed on the right-hand pane. The count of the yarn is approximately assumed and depending upon the count, the face of the hexagonal scale is selected for example: if the count of the yarn is assumed as the 30s then B face is selected. Which has a range of counts from 20s to 40s to find the exact count of the yarn. In the case of the rectangular board, the scale the rectangular board the scale which has that count is bought in level with the beam of the balance by turning the knob. Then the circular weight with the mark similar to that on the scale, in this case, B is placed on the left beam. Then a sample of lea is placed on the right-hand pane and the position of the rectangular weight is adjusted on the beam until the beam is balanced. The count of the yarn is then read off directly from the scale the value opposite a line marked in the center of the rectangular weight. Quadrant Balance: If the sample is available with a length less than 120 yards then Quadrant Balance can be used to determine its count. This is a direct reading yarn count balance and it consists of a quadrant scale fixed to a pillar as shown in fig. At the top of the pillar, the pointer is pivoted so that it moves over the face of the quadrant scale. A crossbeam is also pivoted n the same pivot of the pointer which has a sample hook at its one end and a counterweight at its other end. The counterweight determines the capacity of the instrument. The addition of any weight to the sample hook makes the pointer move Infront of the scale. The quadrant scale is divided into three scales. The top scale can be used to find the weight per square yard of a cloth sample in ounces, the middle scale to find the counter of yarn of length 8 yards, and the third scale to find the count of yarn of length 40 yards. On the top of the pointer and the beam pivot, there is a small adjusting screw the adjustment of which brings the pointer in line with the datum line. The instrument can also be leveled with a leveling screw provided at the base of the instrument. To operate the instrument, it is calibrated after leveling with the base screw. A counterweight marked the 40s is used for calibration for this the counterweight is suspended from the sample hook. If the balance is level the pointer reads the 40s on the 40 yards scale. If it does not read the 40s the pivot of the pointer is adjusted until it reads 40s on the 40yard scale. If a sample of length 8 yards is used its count can be noted from the 8 yards scale and if the sample of length 40 yards is used, its count can be noted from the 40 yards scale. Beesley balance: Click here to find the full article on Beesley Balance. Stubb Yarn Balance: It is also called pocket balance and is used to determine the count of warp and weft yarns taken from a small piece of fabric. The principle is the fixed weight and fixed-length system i.e., the number of fixed weights gives the count of the yarn. It consists of a pillar at the top of which a beam is pivoted on a knife-edge as shown in fig. A sample hook is suspended at one end of the beam and at its other end weight hooks are suspended. A template is used to cut the yarn to a fixed length. Different weight hooks are to be used when different materials are being tested. Depending upon the material the weight hook is selected and suspended at one side of the beam and the yarn samples are added to the sample hook at its other side to bring the beam to a balanced position. The number of threads used to balance the beam gives the count of the yarn taken for the test. This is a very simple instrument and there is no mechanism that goes out of order. This can be used in the testing and weaving laboratories to determine the count of warp and weft yarns during the cloth analysis. Can you help us improve this page? Send us your contribution at info@textilecoach.net, we will update this page and give you proper attribution!

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Yarn Count by Wrap Reel Method

Yarn Count by Wrap Reel Method

#Textile #Gate #Count #WrapReel #YarnCount #Testing #TextileTesting Aim: To determine the yarn count by Wrap Reel Method. Apparatus: WeighingBalance. Scissors. Wrap reel. Objectives of Experiment: To know about Yarn Count. To know about wrap reel and analytical balance. To know how to determine the count by wrap reel and analytical balance. Wrap Reel: A wrap reel or skein winder is a device for measuring yarn and making it into hanks of a standard size. The reel is of a standard size and its revolutions are counted as the yarn is wrapped around it. Typically, a set number of revolutions will be used so that the hank is of a standard size — a skein or lea. For example, a skein of cotton would be 80 turns on a reel of 54 inches circumference, making 120 yards, while the standard length for wool worsted would be 80 yards. Wrap reel is two types on the basis of driving method: Hand Drive Power Drive. Test Procedure: Select the Yarn for which count needs to be tested. Set the yarn through guide bars and tensioners. Wrap the yarn on the wrap reel to make Lea. Set the number of revolutions (80 turns for cotton) that need to be used to make hank (1hank = 120yards for cotton & 80yards for wool) (1 revolution = 54 inches). Weigh the Lea. Calculate the count by using a formula. Calculation: Precaution: To maintain proper tension of yarn when the yarn is wind on wrap reel. Weight is taken very carefully. Can you help us improve this page? Send us your contribution at info@textilecoach.net, we will update this page and give you proper attribution!

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Determination of Thread Count of a given fabric by Beesley Balance

Determination of Thread Count of a given fabric by Beesley Balance

#Yarn #Textile #Thread #Gate #Tf_Gate #Count #BeesleyBalance Count: Yarn Count is a numerical expression that indicates the coarseness or fineness of a yarn. (or) A count is a number indicating the mass per unit length or length per unit mass of the yarn. Principle: It is working on the principle of fixed weight and fixed-length system. It is used for assorting the count of warp and weft yarns from a small sample of the fabric. It consists of pillar A which carries a cross beam B fulcrummed at a knife-edge at point C. At one end the cross beam is a hook E upon which the yarn to be tested can be placed. The other end of the beam tappers to a point C. When the beam is in balance the pointer will coincide with the datum line or the arrow mark on the beam. The pillar is mounted on the base. The whole instrument is levelled by a levelled screw at one end of the base. The crossbeam has a small notch at point D to take the counterweight or rider. A template is also supplied with the instrument and it can be used to measure full cotton, 1/2 cotton lengths, samples of woollen and worsted yarns depending upon the material to be tested and the quality available, the said length can be chosen to cut the sample of length correspondingly marked. The pointer is set directly opposite to the datum line, with no material on the counterweight in their proper places, by adjusting the levelling screw. The Counterweight (rider) for the particular length which is supplied with the instrument is chosen and suspended at the notch and for 1/2 cotton, the small rider is placed. Then the material is cut to the size of the template and then it is hung in the sample hook. The samples are added to the sample hook until the pointer comes in level with the datum line. At that stage, the threads are taken out and counted which gives directly the count of yarn taken for testing. if there are 30 threads in the sample hook at the balanced condition, then the count of the yarn is the 30s. How to Determine Thread Count of a Given Fabric by Beesley Balance? Aim: To determine the thread count of a given fabric by Beesley balance. Apparatus: Template, Beesley balance, Marking pen, scissors, Needle, Pin. Objectives of Experiment: To Know about Yarn count. To know about Template & Beesley balance. To know how to determine the thread count by template & Beesley balance. Template: Template is a length measuring instrument that contains eight arms. When a sample has a short length (Fabric) which we cannot determine by the wrap reel then we use a template using that we can determine the length. Template Measurements: Cotton: 4.32 Inch 1/2 Cotton: 2.16 Inch Linen: 1.543 Inch Wool: 1.315 Inch Worsted: 2.88 Inch Working Procedure: Select the sample for which count need to be measured. Condition the sample at standard atmospheric conditions. Mark the fabric by using a Template and also mark direction (warp or weft). Cut the sample by using scissors. Unravel the yarns from the fabric according to the marking. Set the Beesley balance, make sure that the datum line and pointer are at the same line before placing the rider. If the datum line and pointer are not at the same line then adjust them by using Levelling screw. Place the rider on the notch. Now place the yarns (marked and cut) on the sample hook and check whether the datum line and pointer are matching, if they are not balanced then add yarns till it matches. Count the number of yarns required to balance that will be the count of yarn. Example: If there are 30 threads in the sample hook at the balanced condition so the count of the yarn is the 30s. Precautions: Make sure that markings are done properly. Be careful while withdrawing the yarns from the fabric. Can you help us improve this page? Send us your contribution at info@textilecoach.net, we will update this page and give you proper attribution!

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