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Textile Conversions

Textile Conversions

1 lea = 120 yards 1 hank = 7 leas or 840 yards 1 yard = 0.9144 meters 1 yard = 91.44 cm 1 yard = 3 feet 1 yard = 36 inch 1 meter = 1.094 yards 1 cm = 0.0109 yard 1 foot =12 inches 1 foot = 30.48 cm 1 foot = 0.305 meter 1 foot = 0.333 yard 1 inch = 0.0833 foot 1 mile = 160934.4 cm 1 mile = 1609.344 meters 1 mile = 63360 inches 1 km = 0.6214 mile 1 inch = 2.54 cm 1 inch = 25.4 mm 1 mm = 0.03937 inch 1 meter = 39.37 inch 1 cm = 10 mm 1 decimeter = 10cm or 3.94 inch 1 km = 1000 meter 1 pound(lb.) = 7000 grains 1 pound(lb.) = 16 ounce(OZ) 1 pound(lb.) = 453.6 grams 1 pound(lb.) = 0.454 kg 1 ounce(OZ) = 28.35 grams 1 ounce(OZ) = 0.0283 kg 1 grain = 0.000143 pound 1 grain = 0.065 grams 1 kg = 2.202 pound 1 kg = 1000 grams 1 gm = 1000 milligram 1 milligram(mg) = 0.015 grains 1 centigram = 10 mg 1 dram = 1.772 grams 1 metric ton = 0.984 ton

Conversions within and between different count systems

Conversions within and between different count systems

We can convert yarn count into one count system to another count system. To convert count into English cotton count(Ne): To convert count into tex: To convert count into deniar: To convert count into metric count(Nm): To convert count into Decitex(dtex) or Grex:

Lotus Fibre

Lotus Fibre

Lotus fibre is the new upcoming fibre in the world of textile and fashion. Lotus fibre is a natural bast fibre which is obtained from the stems of lotus plant. These are grown naturally on lake-Inle and burma lake. and distributed all over India. is the only micro fibre obtained from natural fibres and its a eco friendly fibre. Nelumbo nucifera is the . binomial name of lotus. Around 250 mtr of thread can be produced by a spinner in a day and 40000 lotus stems are required to make 1 meter of fabric. Species of lotus fibre are: Nelumbo lutea: new world (North America) Nelumbo nucifera: old world (Asia and Australia) Other species: N. flavescens- strongly scented lemon yellow N. alba - bold and beautiful It is called as luxury textile fiber due to its characteristics like symbol of purity, national flower of India, immortality, divine, purity and holiness. The one who wears lotus fiber fabric feels calm, meditative and peaceful which also cures the wearer from headache, asthama, lung diseases and heart ailments. Best time for planting lotus is april and its require minimum temperature of 20 degree centigrade and sunlight for 6 hours per day. structure of lotus fiber: It consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin,ash, lignin,fat, wax and amino acid. It has 48% crystallinity. cross of fiber is round or oval. processing of lotus fiber: Lotus harvesting: stems of lotus plant are collected when the flowers of the lotus are in full bloom. The deep pink flower consists of best quality fibers. Extraction of fiber: Lotus fiber extraction is very time consuming and painstaking. The stems of lotus are cut with knife and snapped for 5-6 times. After snapping it reveals 20-30 fine filaments of fiber. And then the filaments are pulled out from the stem and hung to dry and then rolled into single thread. preparation of yarn: The extracted fibers are placed on a skein to prepare warp yarn. Threads are made up to a length of 40 mtr to avoid entanglement. weft yarn is wound on to bamboo bobbins. Weaving process: To prevent deterioration the yarns should be woven within 24 hours of being extracted as they are delicate. Weaving can be done by using traditional combodian loom. After weaving fabrics are dyed by using natural dyes. Yarns also can be dyed in skein forms. Properties: It is having the resistance towards pilling. it has the appearance of raw silk or linen. It has the color of milky yellow. It has the property of self cleaning. It is stiff, cool, lightweight, wrinkle free, stain resistant, crease resistant, water proof, soft, smooth, finer, sustainable and environmental friendly. The length range of lotus fiber is about 31-50 mm. The width of lotus fiber ranges form 50 to 90μm. The fineness of single fiber is 3.963 to 4.516 μm. Initial modulus is 146.81 cn/dtex. Breaking tenacity is 3.44 cn/dtex. Elongation at break is 2.75%. Density of lotus fiber is 1.1848 g/cc. The ratio of length to fineness is about 104. Linear density of lotus fiber is 1.55dtex. The moisture regain of lotus fiber is 12.32%. The crystallinity of lotus fiber is 48.50 %. It is air permeable and comfortable. It has good elasticity. It dries fastly. It absorbs moisture. It is cool in summer and warm in winter. It gives best results when blended with silk, cotton, kapok and banana fibers in a different proportions. Disadvantages: collection of raw material, spinning and weaving is handmade so the process is time consuming. It is most expensive fiber and labor intensive. The yarns should be woven within 24 hours of being extracted to prevent the deterioration.

Mixing and Blending of Fibers in Spinning process

Mixing and Blending of Fibers in Spinning process

Mixing: It is an operation where different cottons of certain known physical properties (like staple length, fineness, and grade) are combined to achieve a mix with average characteristics. Mixing is a haphazard operation. So, the characteristics of one mixing cannot be reproduced. Example: Low grade cotton + High grade cotton = Mixing. Types of Mixing: 1. Weight mixing 2. Volume mixing 3. Bin mixing 4. Hand stock mixing 5. Hopper mixing 6. Card mixing 7. Lap mixing 8. Sliver mixing 9. Automatic mixing Weight Mixing: In this process different qualities of cotton fibers are weighed and put together. Volume Mixing: In this process different qualities of cotton of known volumes are put together. Bin Mixing: In this process cotton flocks are transferred from bale opener to a pipeline which is of 10" dia. and passed it to bins, these fiber flocks are transferred into the bins from the delivery boxes. Hand Stock Mixing: In this process cotton flocks from different bales are manually collected and put together. This is one of the oldest methods and generally used in high count yarn production. Hopper Mixing: In this method, mixing is done in hopper bale opener machine. Hopper bale opener picks the cotton from different bales and deposits on a lattice where mixing action takes place. Card Mixing: In this method mixing action is carried out in high production carding machine. Two different cotton laps are fed to carding machine to achieve mixing. Lap Mixing: In this method to obtain mixing double scutcher is used. Which consist of one breaker scutcher and one finisher scutcher. Different grade and different qualities of laps are produced in breaker scutcher. Four lap stands are placed before the finisher scutcher. Hence, mixing can be achieved in different ratios. Sliver Mixing: In this method different carded slivers are fed to draw frame to carryout doubling action and obtain mixing. Automatic Mixing: In this method cotton fibers are mixed automatically by different automated machines, without bale breaking manually. Here, the number of bales is placed both side of longitudinally. The m/c moves in traversing mo. for mixing. Blending: It is the manufacturing of products containing different fibers of known characteristics in various proportions. Fibers of known physical properties are blended under controlled conditions so that the resultant blend could be reproduced. The blending operations is based on exact measuring of all fiber properties and correct proportions. Example: 50% polyester + 50% cotton = Blending. Nylon + cotton = Blending. Types of Blending: 1. Bale mixing. 2. Flock blending. 3. Lap blending. 4. Web blending. 5. Sliver blending. 6. Fiber blending. 7. Roving blending. Bale Mixing: This process is carried out before Blow-room. Bale mixing is done for both natural and man-made fibers. For this process 6 to 60 bales are placed one after the other for simultaneous flock extraction. The blend obtained by this process is unsatisfactory in the longitudinal direction due to uncontrolled extraction of flocks and danger to deblending. Flock blending: This process is carried out within the blow-room process. This process takes place in an uncontrolled manner, naturally, and to a smaller degree. Lap blending: To carry out this process a double scutcher is required. 4-6 laps are fed through conveyer lattice. The blend obtained through this process will have high longitudinal and traverse blends. Web blending: To carry out this process ribbon lap machine or blending drawframe is used. By use of drawframe controlled blending can be obtained by bringing together components web form instead of sliver form. This process gives a good longitudinal blend as well as transverse blend which is obtained with sliver blend. Sliver blending: Carried out on drawframe and it provides best blend in longitudinal direction. Fiber blending: This process is carried out at the card or the OE spinning machine. This is the most intimate blend is obtained if individual fibers are brought together. This can be achieved only on the cotton card (to a small degree), on the woolen card (something intensively), and in rotor spinning (over short length only). Roving blending: This process not majorly used in short-staple spinning mills. Two different ravings are fed to ring spinning machine, here fibers do not blend with drafting, but the yarn is twisted with one or another component. Difference between Mixing and Blending: Objectives of Mixing / Blending: I. To achieve uniform quality of yarn throughout its length. II. To reduce the cost of production. III. To achieve functional and end use requirements. IV. To improve process performance. V. To facilitate the cotton for regain its moisture content lost during baling.



#Textile #Yarn #Crimp #Gate #TextileCoach Crimp: Due to the interlacement of warp and weft yarns, a certain amount of waviness is imparted to the warp and weft yarns in a fabric. This waviness is called crimp. Hence the apparent length of a thread as it exists in the fabric is less than its straightened length. Crimp Percentage: It is defined as the mean difference between the straightened thread length and the distance between the ends of the thread while in the cloth, expressed as a percentage. Influence of Crimp on Fabric Properties: Warp and Weft crimp percentages are two factors that have an influence on the following fabric properties: Resistance to Abrasion Shrinkage Fabric Behavior during Strength Testing Faults in Fabric Fabric Design Fabric Costing Resistance to Abrasion: The abrasion resistance of fabric will be more if the crimp in the yarn is more. The yarns with high crimp take the burn of abrasive action. This is because curves formed as the yarn bends around a transverse yarn, will protrude from the surface of the fabric and meet the destructive abrasive agent first. The other set of yarns lying in the center of the fabric will only play their part in resisting abrasion when the highly crimped threads are nearly worn through. Shrinkage: When the yarns are wet, they swell and consequently say a warp thread has a longer bending path to take a swollen weft yarn. The warp yarn must either increase the length or alternatively the weft yarns must move closer together. An increase in the length of warp yarn requires the application of tension and therefore when the tension is absent equilibrium conditions will be attained by the weft yarns moved closer together. The largest amount of shrinkage is that represented by an increase of crimp. Yarn shrinkage takes second place and generally it is just less than the increase in the crimp. Since shrinkage is mainly due to yarn swelling and the resulting crimp increase, mechanical means of controlled pre-shrinking have been developed such as sanforizing and Rigmel processes. Fabric Behavior During Strength Testing: When a strip of fabric is extended in one direction crimp is removed and the yarns are straightened. This causes the yarns at right angles to the loading direction to be crimped further i.e., when the load is applied along the warp threads crimp in the warp yarns is removed and that in the weft yarns is increased. This is known as crimp interchange. The sample loses its original rectangular shape and the middle portion to the strip contracts. This is known as waisting. Due to the removal of the crimp, the load-elongation curve will show a relatively high extension per unit increase in load in the early stages of strength testing of a strip of fabric. Faults in Fabric: Variation in crimp can give rise to faults in fabric, eg, reduction in strength, bright picks, diamond bars in rayons, strips in yarn-dyed cloths, etc. The crimp variation is mainly due to the improper tensions on the yarn during yarn preparation and weaving. Fabric Design: Control of crimp percentage is necessary when a fabric is designed with a degree of extensibility. Some fabrics require control of crimp in the finishing processes to give the correct crimp balance between warp and weft so that the finished appearance is satisfactory. Therefore, the tensions applied must be carefully controlled. Fabric costing: Since crimp is related to length, it follows that the quantity of yarn required to produce a given length of fabric is affected by the warp and weft crimp percentages. Therefore in calculating the cost and the yarn requirements, the values of crimp play an important role. Can you help us improve this page? Send us your contribution at, we will update this page and give you proper attribution!



Introduction: Betel nut fiber is a natural, fruit fiber that is obtained from the husk of the beetle nut fruit. “Betel nut”, “Areca catechu”, “Areca” and “Arecaceae” is the common name, botanical name, genus, and family respectively. It is native to The Philippines but is now widely cultivates in the tropics of East Asia. India, China, and Indonesia are the major producers of the betel nut. It Grows best when the temperature lies in the range 16 to 38 ͦc and prefers annual rainfall in the range 1500 to 5000 mm. Approximately 2.50-2.75 g of areca fiber can be produced from each husk. The husk is about 15–30% of the weight of the raw nut. The nuts inside are used in the factories to produce supari, medicine, and coloring. The epidermis of the fruit is thrown out as an agro-waste or been used as a material for burning. The outer husk is used for textile purposes as it has a rich source of cellulose. It can grow up to a staggering height of 50 to 70 feet. Lifespan is about 100 years and tress can continue fruiting for 30 to 60 years. Extraction Of Fiber:
In order to remove the seeds primarily. The Betel Nuts have to be crushed. The husk which is covering the nut is been processed by the retting process. In the retting process, the crushed betel nuts were rinsed and soaked in water for 2 days to ease the fiber extraction. While still wet, the outer layers of the betelnut fruit nothing but husk were removed. Fiber is extracted by hand pick method or fiber extractor machine. Then the extracted fiber is rinsed with an excess of clean water to make sure the fiber is out of impurities. To remove excess water content in the fiber the rinsed fiber has to be sun-dried for a day. Chemical composition: Properties: Length: 30-60 mm. Width: 24.25µm. Diameter: 28-90 mm. Density: 1.3470g/cc. Moisture content: 11.76%. Strength: 2.54 ± 0.5GPa. Elongation at break: 15±3%. Mean single fiber strength: 65.0g. Mean bundle fiber strength: 843g. SEM image: a bone-like longitudinal structure with a wood-like surface. Crystallization of the fiber at -1.014 m W/mg: 92.5 ͦ C. Elongation: 1.6% or 4 mm. The fiber is rough and brittle. Fibers are stiffer due to the content of lignin. Benefits: It is biodegradable, renewable. It can be recycled. Uses:
Used in making thick boards, fluffy cushions, and nonwoven fabrics. Betel nut fiber can be used for making composites. The composites manufactured with betel nut fiber and epoxy used for marine applications, electrical insulating components, lightweight components, automobile industry, and chemical industry.

Sisal Fiber

Sisal Fiber

Introduction: Sisal fiber is a vegetable fiber obtained from the leaves of the sisal plant. It belongs to the family “Asparagaceae”. It comes under the genus “agave”. World production of sisal fiber is about 300,000 tones. Each plant produces 180 to 240 leaves in lifetime yielding and each leaf contains an average of around 1000 fibers. One leaf weighs around 500 to 700 grams. 90% of the weight being moisture. The leaves are dagger-shaped and when mature 1 m to 1.5 m long and about 10 cm wide. The first harvesting can be done When the plant is about 2 years old and they remain productive for 7 to 12 years. It requires the average temperature between 20 to 28 ͦ c and the annual rainfall average is 600 to 1500 mm. It grows best at hot and dry areas. This plant adapts well to tropical and subtropical regions. Processing of sisal fiber: It has to be extracted as soon as after the leaf has been cut. If the leaf allowed to dry, the leaf will damage in the cleaning process. Extraction of fibers from leaves can be done in 2 ways. 1.retting followed by scraping 2. mechanical means using decorticators Second method i.e. By using decorticators is superior to the first method as it yields about 2-4% fiber with good quality and lustrous color and poor quality fiber with dull color is produced by the retting method. Extraction of fiber by mechanical means: By decorticating machine: this machine used for scrapping the leaf of the sisal. It has 3 rollers i.e. Feed roller which is used for feeding of leaves into the machine, leaf scratching roller which scratches upper layer of leaf and removes the waxy layer and the serrated roller which crushes the leaves.
After extraction, fibers are washed with clean water to remove the wastes such as chlorophyll, pulp, plant material, adhesive solids and leaf juices. And the fibers have to be dried in the sun, bleached and combed with rotating brushes. The dried fiber represents only 4% of the total weight of the leaf. Classification: The sisal leaf consists of 3 types of fibers, namely Mechanical fibers: extracted from the periphery of the leaf. Ribbon fibers: extracted from the tissues in the median line of the leaf. These are the longest fibers compared to mechanical fiber. Xylem fibers: These occur opposite to ribbon fibers and have an irregular shape and composed of thin-walled cells therefore easily broken up and lost during the extraction process. Structure of sisal fiber: Chemical composition: Identification of sisal fiber: Properties of sisal fiber: Length: 1.0 to 1.5m Diameter: 100 to 300 mm Density: 1.28 to 1.42 g/cm3 Tensile strength: 400 to 700 MPa Young’s modulus: 9.0 to 38.0 Gpa Elongation: 1.54 to 3.85 % Moisture content: 10 to 22% It does not absorb moisture, dust easily. It can be dyed easily is durable with low maintenance with minimal wear and tear. It is hydrophilic fiber. Its the cross-section is circular or sometimes elliptical depending on the location and rainfall. Its longitudinal shape is a cylinder. It is astatic. Youngs modulus increases with fiber length. It exhibits good sound and impact absorbing properties. Benefits: It is 100% biodegradable. It is used as fertilizer, cattle feed and as fuel for biogas production. Uses of sisal fiber: Sisal is divided by 3 grades and applied in various industries according to the grade. Low grade: it can be used in the paper industry and cordage industry. Medium grade: it can be used in agriculture, marine and general industrial applications. And used for making binder twine and ropes. High grade: it can be used in the carpet industry, the automobile industry.



Introduction: Milk/casein fiber is a synthetic fiber manufactured from milk casein through bio-engineering method. This fiber comes under regenerated protein fiber class. This fiber is first manufactured by Antonio Ferretti in the early 1930s.
Manufacturing process
The raw material for this process is soya milk, process this milk naturally until it is converted into casein. Dissolve the casein in water which contains 2% by weight of alkali to make a viscous solution with 20 to 25 % protein.
Filter the casein solution by pumping it through metering pump through a platinum-gold alloy disc or spinneret with thousands of holes.
The solution, streaming from the holes of the spinneret is immersed in water that contains an acid.
The acid neutralizes the alkali used to dissolve the casein. The small continuous fibers are then stretched, treated in various solutions, and collected by the spinning machinery.
The tensile strength of the yarn (just like regular thread) is enhanced by stretching the fiber while it is being tanned with aluminum salts and formaldehyde. SEM analysis of casein fiber Types of casein fiber: Rennet Casein Acid Casein Advantages of Casein fiber: Milk protein is hygienic and flexible. It is highly smooth, sheen, and delicate. It is moisture absorbent, permeable, and heat resistant. It is colorfast and easily dyeable and requires no special care because of its natural protein base. It can be blended with other fiber. It is renewable, biodegradable, and eco- friendly fabric. Disadvantages of casein fiber: It gets wrinkled easily after washing and needs to be ironed every time. It has low durability-though caseins can be laundered with care the same as wool but they lose strength when wet and must be handled gently. It is expensive. They cannot be kept damp for any length of time due to quick mildewing. Properties of casein fiber: Flame test: Burns slowly and brightly in air, but extinguishes with the removal of flame source. Applications:
1. Apparels
2. Innerwear
3. Sportswear
4. Ladieswear
5. Sweaters



Introduction: Bamboo is a natural fiber obtained from Bamboo plants. This fiber comes under the class of grass fiber (natural-grass-bamboo). India is the second-largest producer of bamboo after china. Bamboo fiber is stated as the green, natural, and eco-friendly type of textile-fiber of 21st century as this fiber degrades naturally in soil by sunlight and micro-organisms, this decomposition/ degradation process will not cause any pollution. According to FSI, about 8.96 million hectors of Indian forest land is covered with bamboo plants, i.e., 12.8% of total forest land. The annual bamboo production of India is approximately 3.23 million tons. Extraction of Bamboo fiber: There are two major ways of extracting bamboo fibers from bamboo plants. Mechanical method. Chemical method. Mechanical Method:
There is various forms extraction of bamboo fibers mechanically, like Steam explosion, Crushing, Grinding, Rolling mill and Retting. Steam explosion:
This process consumes little amount of energy to produce pulp. Fiber is dried for 2 hours at 120oc, so that lignin content from the fiber removed completely. Then bamboo is placed in an autoclave for 60min at 175oc and at 0.7-0.8 MPa, then raise the steam for 5min and for 9 more times, repeat this process until cell walls of bamboo were fractured. As the cell walls get cracked the fiber becomes smooth and contains low shear resistance. To remove the ash from the cells it should be washed in the hot water at 90-95oc and then dry it for 24 hrs. at 105oc.
In this process, the first bamboo is cut into small pieces with the help of roller crusher. To extract the fibers from this cut pieces, it is placed in pin-roller. Then fibers are boiled for 10 hrs. at 90oc, this is done to reduce fat. Then dry the fibers in the rotary dryer, and then in a dehydrator. In this process, only staple fibers are produced. Grinding:
In this process, the first bamboo is cut into small pieces without node, then soak in water for 24 hrs. later these soaked strips are cut into small pieces with the help of a knife. Wider pieces are sent to extruder and longer pieces are cut into small bamboo pieces. These cut pieces are ground in a high-speed blender for 30 min to obtain short bamboo fibers. Later fibers are separated based on length by use of various instruments. Finally, these extracted fibers are dried in an oven for 72 hrs. at 105oc.
Rolling mill: In this process bamboo is cut into pieces of 1mm thickness, then these pieces are soaked in water for 1hr, then they are passed through rolling mill under low pressure and speed. After rolling these fibers are soaked in water for 30 min, and then fibers are separated by using a razor blade. These obtained fibers are dried in sunlight for almost 2 weeks. Then length rage of fibers produced through this process is 220-270mm.
In this process, bamboo is peeled longitudinally along with node. These stripes are soaked in water for 3 days. Wet stripes are beaten, then scraped with a sharp edge knife and combed.
Chemical method:
In chemical extraction method there are two ways 1. Chemical retting. 2. Alkali or Acid retting. Chemical retting: In this method, bamboo is cut into thin pieces in a longitudinal direction with a slicer, these pieces are manually placed in Zn(NO3)2 solution of 1%, 2%, and 3% concentrations, this solution is of 1:20 M:L, at 40oc for 116 hrs. at pH-7 in a BOD incubator. Then for 1 hr., they are boiled in hot water. Alkali or Acid retting: in this process bamboo pieces are heated with 1N NaOH solution in a stainless steel container at 70oc for 5 hrs. then these pieces are pressed using a press machine and by use of steel nail, fibers will separate. Wash the fibers with water then dry in an oven. Bamboo processing through enzymes: Physical properties: Application of bamboo fibers: Used in bed linen Bathrobes, bath mats, towels Flannels Apron, Oven gloves, apparels etc. Merits of bamboo fiber: Soft and silky to touch Natural sheen Drapes well High absorbency material Quick-drying. Anti-microbial Anti UV Breathability Bio-degradable Odor absorption properties.

Wool Fiber

Wool Fiber

Introduction : Wool is a natural fiber attained from the Hair of sheep. The wool comes under the category of Natural-Animal-Protein. The history of wool begins in stone age i.e., before 10,000 BC in Europe, primitive humans collected wool by handpicking. India produces about 2% of wool in world production and it is the 7th largest manufacturer with the product range of 43-46 million kgs per year. India has 3rd largest population of sheep in the entire world with 71 million sheep. The Indian wool industry is growing at a healthy rate. With an increase in technology into the wool industry and due to various government schemes and other capacity-building initiatives, increased exports, besides domestic consumption. Sheep Shearing: It is the process of cutting the woolen fleece of the sheep. The persons who collect/ remove wool from sheep is called Shearer. On average an adult sheep can be shorn once a year. After shearing the sheep is called shorn or sheared. Shearing is done by using Wool scissor or by hair clipper machine. Classification of wool: Classification based on the type of sheep: Merino wool Class-two wool Class-three wool Class-four wool Merino Wool: 40% of world production is Merino wool. Australia merino wool quality is Best. This type of wool has a fine size and has good uniformity. This type of wool is fine with good Strength, elasticity, and wicking property. Class-Two Wool: This is not quite good as Merino wool. Class-two Wool has a large number of scales per inch. Class-Two Wool has a good crimp. Class-Two Wool is Strong, Fine, and Elastic. Class-Two Wool also has food working properties. Class-Three Wool: Class-Three Wool is Courser than merino and class-two wool. Class-Three Wool has a lesser number of scales than merino and Class-Two Wool. Class-Three Wool is less crimp than merino and Class-Two Wool. Class-Three Wool is smooth and has more luster. Class-Three Wool is less elastic and resilient. Class-Three Wool is nevertheless of good enough quality to be used for clothing. Class-Four Wool: Class-Four Wool is coarser. Class-Four Wool has few scales. Class-Four Wool has a little crimp. Class-Four Wool is smoother and lustrous. Class-Four Wool has less strength and the least elasticity. Class-Four Wool is used to manufacturing carpets, rugs, and inexpensive low-grade clothing. Classification based on Fleece: Lambs Wool Hogget Wool Whether Wool Pulled Wool Dead Wool Cotty wool Tag locks Wool Lamb’s Wool: The wool obtained by shearing the 6-8 moths old sheep is known as Lamb’s wool. Generally, this is obtained by the first shearing. Sometimes this is also called “Fleece Wool or First Clip”. This type of wool is very fine and the fibers are tapered as the ends are never trimmed before. Fabrics produced by this type of wool has a very soft texture. Hogget Wool:
This type of wool is obtained by shearing the 12-14 months old sheep. This is also obtained from the first shearing. This type of wool is also called as Teg-wool. This is very fine, soft, resilient, and matured with tapered ends. Hog wool is a very desirable wool that is used as warp yarns in fabric manufacturing. Weather Wool:
The second shearing of wool is called weather wool. This is generally obtained from more than 14 months of old sheep. This kind of wool will be of soil and dirt. Pulled wool:
This type of wool is obtained after slaughtering the sheep. Wool is pulled from the dead sheep by the use of line, by sweating, or by chemical depilatory. The quality of the pulled wool is not good. Dead wool:
This type of wool is obtained from the sheep which is accidentally killed i.e., dead by accident or by any other disease. This type of wool is used for low-grade clothing. Cotty wool:
This type of wool is obtained by exposing sheep to different weather conditions. This is hard and brittle and this is a very poor quality of wool. Tag-locks wool:
This is obtained from discolored parts of the sheep. This type of wool is sold separately as an inferior grade of wool. Grading of wool:
Based on the length and diameter of the wool grading is done.
1. Fine
2. Medium
3. Long
4. Cross bread
5. Mixed Morphological Structure of Wool: Technically wool contains three layers. 1. Cuticle (or) epidermis 2. Cortex 3. Medulla. Cuticle: 1) This is the outermost layer of the wool fiber.
2) This layer is made of flat, irregular horny scales with projecting edges that are pointing toward the fiber tip.
3) Cuticle acts as the protection to the main parts of fiber.
4) This layer gives the rigidity to the wool fibers.
5) Cell width – 36 microns
6) Thickness – 0.5-1.0 microns.
7) Visible length – 16 microns.
8) With an increase in diameter, the number of scales also increases.
Cortex: 1) This layer forms the body of the fiber. 2) This layer contains long, slightly flattened and twisted spindle-shaped cells.
3) The cell length is 80 – 110 microns.
4) This layer is responsible for strength, elasticity, and dyeing behavior.
1. This is the central core which runs lengthwise through the fiber.
2. This layer occupies a 10 – 80% volume in fiber.
Detailed structures are shown in the fig. below Chemical structure of Wool: Physical properties of wool: Length: 3.6 cm to 35 cm Based on length wool is classified into
Fine : 3.2 cm to 10 cm
Medium: 5 cm to 20 cm
Coarse: 15 cm & more
Fineness: 10–70 microns
Merino wool: 10-30 micron
Carpet wool: 20-70 micron
Cross-section: Circular to Elliptical
Crimp : 0-30 crimps/inch
For Fine wool- 14 to 22 crimps/inch
For Medium wool- 8 to 14 crimps/inch
For Coarser wool- 0 to 8 crimps/inch.
Strength :
Wool fiber has low strength due to its low orientation.
Strength of different types of wool
1. Fine wool – 4.8 to 7.1 gm.
2. Medium wool – 10 to 16 gm.
3. Coarser wool – 20 to 24 gm.

Tensile strength of wool : 1600 to 2150 kg/cm2
Elasticity : Wool has good Elasticity with 90% recovery and wool fiber can be elongated up to 30%
Hygroscopic property :
· Wool fiber is hygroscopic than any other natural fiber.
· Wool can absorb 25% of moisture at normal conditions it can absorb 12-15% of moisture and at 70-80% Rh wool can absorb 15-18% of moisture.
Specific gravity :
1.30 gm/cc
Electrical property:
Wool is a bad conductor of electricity.
Thermal properties :
· There is no effect up to 130oc until it is exposed for a long time.
· When Wool is heated in dry air it feels harsh and brittle at 115oc and Scorch at above 200oc.
Effect of sunlight :
· When wool exposed to sunlight keratin will decompose.
· Under the action of sunlight sulfur in wool converted to H2SO4.
· Under the action of sunlight, the fiber becomes discolored and develops a harsh feel.
Luster :
The luster of coarser fiber is higher than fine fibers.
Storage :
There is no effect on storage.
Chemical properties :
Effect of Acid :
· In Conc. Sulphuric acid wool decomposes.
· Wool has resistance to mineral acid.
· Under the action of Nitric acid wool Oxidizes.
Effect of Alkalis :
· Wool is sensitive to alkalis
· Wool dissolves in caustic acid.
· Effect of strong alkali is significant and weak alkalies will not effect on wool.
Effect of organic solvents :
· Organic solvents will not effect wool
Effect of insects :
Wool is effected by insects.
Effect of micro-organisms :
Wool is effected by mildew if it remains wet for a long time.
Dyeing ability :
Wool can be dyed with Basic dyes, Direct dyes, and Acid dyes.
Chemical composition of Wool : Grease : · Grease is an impurity in the wool with an composition of 5-15% · This is insoluble in water and cause emulsion. · This is soluble in organic solvents. · Wool grease is an ester of high molecular weight fatty acids and a monohydric alcohol i.e., ichloesterol (C27H45OH) or isocholesterol. · Grease is not fat but it is wax · Wool wax absorbs a large quantity of water. Suint : · This is soluble in water and can be isolated from raw wool by aqueous extraction. · It consist of potassium salts of fatty acids and organic amino acids and it is a complex mixture. Sand and Dirt : · In the natural state of wool, it contains some amount of dirt. · Wool keratin is composed of fine elements like

Carbon Fiber

Carbon Fiber

Carbon is the man-made refractory fiber manufactured from polyacrylonitrile. Commercially first carbon was invented in 1964, by Bacon and Wesley Schalamon produced from rayon using a new “hot stretching” process. Classification of Carbon Fiber: Based on carbon fiber properties. Ultra-high-modulus – UHM (modulus greater than 450Gpa). High-modulus – HM (modulus between 350-450Gpa). Intermediate-modulus – IM (modulus between 200-350Gpa) Low modulus and high-tensile, HT (modulus less than 100Gpa, tensile strength greater than 3.0 Gpa) Super high-tensile, SHT (Tensile strength greater than 4.5Gpa) Based on precursor fiber materials. Isotropic pitch based. PAN-based. Mesophase pitch based. Gas-phase-grown. Pitch-based. Rayon-based. Based on final heat treatment temperature. Type-I: High heat treatment carbon fibers – HTT, in this case the final heat temperature is above 2000oC and can be associated with high modulus type fiber. Type-II: Intermediate heat treatment carbon fibers – IHT, in this case the final heat temperature is above 1500oC and can be associated with high strength type fiber. Type-III: Low heat treatment carbon fibers, in this case the final heat temperature is less than 1000oC. These are low modulus and low strength materials. Production Process: Carbon fibers produced from polyacrylonitrile (PAN): Raw materials: The raw material used to produce carbon fiber is known as Precursor. Generally, about 90% of the carbon fibers are produced from polyacrylonitrile, the remaining 10% are produced from rayon or petroleum pitch. These materials are organic polymers which are characterized by long strings of molecules bonded by carbon atoms. The exact compositions of the raw materials may vary from one company to another and this is a trade secret. During the production process different gases and liquids are used. Some of these materials are designed to react with the fibers to obtain the specific effect/ property and some other materials are used to avoid certain reactions from the fibers. The exact compositions are trade secret. Production process of PAN: The image mentioned below will give information about production flow. Spinning: Acrylonitrile is mixed with another plastic, like methyl acrylate or methyl methacrylate, and is reacted with a catalyst in a conventional suspension or solution polymerization process to obtain polyacrylonitrile. Now, this polyacrylonitrile is spun into fibers by using various methods, in some methods, this polyacrylonitrile is mixed with various chemicals and then pumped through tiny jets into a chemical bath or a quenching chamber where the polyacrylonitrile is coagulates and solidifies into fibers. This is like the production of polyacrylic fibers. In the other method this polyacrylonitrile is heated and them pumped through a spinneret where this solvent evaporates, and fibers are produced. This is an important process as the internal atomic structure of the fiber is formed during this process. Then these fibers are washed and stretched to the desired diameter (count). This stretching helps for the alignment of the molecules within the fibers and provides the basis for the formation of the tightly bonded carbon crystals after carbonization. Stabilizing: Before the fibers are carbonized, they need to be chemically altered to convert their linear atomic bonding to a more thermally stable ladder bonding. Heating is carried out by hot air which is around 390-590oF (200-300oC) for 30-120 minutes, which will help to pick up oxygen molecules from the air and rearrange their atomic bonding pattern. The chemical reactions required for stabilization are complex and involves various steps, in which few of the reactions are occur simultaneously. The reactions are exothermic which must be controlled to avoid overheating of the fibers. Commercially this process uses different equipment and techniques. In some cases, the fibers are drawn through a series of heating chambers. In some other cases fibers pass over hot rollers and through beds of loose materials held in suspension by a flow of hot air. Some processes use heated air mixed with certain gases that chemically accelerate the stabilization. Carbonization: After the stabilization process these fibers are heated to a temperature of 1,830-5,500oF (1000-3000oC) for several minutes in special chamber which contain a mixture of gases (this mixture of gases does not contain oxygen). As we are heating in absence of oxygen which will prevents the fibers burning in the very high temperature. The gas pressure inside the special chamber is kept higher than the outside pressure and the point where the fibers enter, and exit are tightly sealed to avoid oxygen entering the chamber. When the fibers are heated, they will lose their non-carbon atoms and few carbon atoms, as various gases including water vapor, carbon monoxide, ammonia, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen, and various other gases. As the non-carbon atoms are expelled the remaining carbon atoms are tightly bonded as carbon crystals, and all the aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber. In some other processes, two chambers operating two different temperatures are used for better control over the temperature during carbonization. Treating the Surface: After carbonizing, the fiber surface will not bond with epoxies and other materials used in the composite materials. To improve the fiber bonding property these fibers are slightly oxidized. The addition of the oxygen atoms on the surface of the fiber will improve bonding property and etches and roughens the surface for better mechanical bonding properties. Oxidation can be done by immersing the fibers in various gases like air, carbon dioxide, ozone, or in various liquids like sodium hypochlorite or nitric acid. The fiber can also be coated electrolytically by making the fibers positive terminal in a bath filled with various electrically conductive materials. The surface treatment process can be carefully controlled to avoid surface defects such as pits, which may cause fiber failure. Sizing: After the surface modification process the fibers need to be coated to avoid damage during the winding and weaving process. This process is known as sizing. The coating material should be compatible with the adhesive used for the composite materials. Generally, the coating materials include epoxy, polyester, nylon, urethane, and others. These coated fibers are wound onto a bobbin. These bobbins are loaded into a spinning machine and the fibers are twisted into yarns of various sizes. Physical Properties: Tenacity: 1.8-2.4 (KN/mm2) Density: 1.95 gm/cc Elongation at break: 0.5% Elasticity: Not Good Moisture Regain (MR%): 0% Resiliency: Not Good Ability to protest friction: Good Color: Black Ability to Protest Heat: Good Luster: Like silky Chemical Properties: Effect of Bleaching: Sodium Hypochlorite slightly oxidized carbon fiber. Effect of sun Light: Do not Change Carbon fiber. Protection against flame: Excellent Protection ability against insects: Do not harm carbon fiber Applications: Sports Textile Applications. Automobile industry. Aerospace industry. Wind turbine blades. Military Applications. Medical Applications.

History, Characteristics, and Applications of Nonwoven

History, Characteristics, and Applications of Nonwoven

Definition: Non woven fabrics are fibrous structure produced by interlocking or bonding of fibers by mechanical, thermal or chemical means. In this technology, fabrics can be produced by variety of processes and in an easy way other than weaving and knitting. History: According to Batra and Pourdeyhimi, the nonwoven industry was truly began in 1920’s to 1930’s. But the industrial manufacturing in commercial quantities was started in 1942 and the first disposable diaper using nonwoven fabric in 1947 by George schroder. In early stages nonwoven fabrics are used for limited applications. But now nonwoven plays a very important role in technical textiles and has wide range of applications. Currently, about 50000 tons per year non woven fabric is produced In India. Characteristics of non woven: Air permeability Water permeability Water absorption Sound absorption Shock absorption Moisture absorption Heat insulative Dust collective Water reservative Oil reservative Decorative Shading Polishing ability 3D stability Filtration UV block Impregnable etc... End uses of Nonwoven: Agro Textiles Applications: Crop Covers. Root Bags. Weed Control Fabrics. Containers. Automotive Applications: Floor Covers. Transmission oil filters. Foam Reinforcements. Wheel House covers. Seat Applications. Dash Insulators. Side, Front, and Back Liners. Door Trim Panel Padding. Geo-Textiles Applications: Dam and Stream embankments. Soil Stabilization. Road and Rail road Beds. Sedimentation and Erosion Control. Health Care Applications: Surgical Caps, Gowns, Masks. Bandages, Tapes, Dippers. Bed Linen, Under Pads. Filters for IV solution and Blood. Orthopedic Padding. Construction Applications: Acoustic Celling's. Insulation. House and Pipe Warp. Roofing and Tile underlayment. Industrial and Military Applications: Air conditioning Filters. Flame Barriers. Conveyor Belts. Protective Clothing. Lab coats. Lubricating pads. Clothing Applications: Interlinings. Clothing and Glove Insulation. Shoe and Hand bag Components. Bra and Shoulder Padding. Home Furnishing Applications: Quilt, Carpet Backing. Dust Covers. Bedding and Construction Sheeting. Pillows, Pillow Cases. Furniture Construction Sheeting. Acoustic Wall Coverings. Household Applications: Dust Cloths, Mops. Washcloths, Tablecloths. Napkins. Tea and Coffee Bags. Wipes. Aprons, Ironing board Pads. Leisure, Travel, School Applications: Sleeping Bags. Tarpaulins, Tents. Cosmetic Applications and removers. Vacuum cleaner bags. Buff Pads. Book covers. Mailing envelops, Labels. Pen nib, Maps, Pennants.